Blogs Untitled (Blog) Photography

Interview: JoAnn Verburg on her new iPad-based photo project

Photographer JoAnn Verburg and Minneapolis-based Location Books have teamed up to produce what is likely the first artist’s book created expressly for the iPad. Launched today after a preview at Verburg’s riverfront studio on Sunday, the free app, entitled AS IT IS AGAIN, is linked to Minnesota’s long winters, although it was shot over three months […]

Photographer JoAnn Verburg and Minneapolis-based Location Books have teamed up to produce what is likely the first artist’s book created expressly for the iPad. Launched today after a preview at Verburg’s riverfront studio on Sunday, the free app, entitled AS IT IS AGAIN, is linked to Minnesota’s long winters, although it was shot over three months in Italy. The subject of a 2007 Museum of Modern Art solo exhibition (which came to the Walker in early 2008), Verburg briefly discussed aspects of the new project via email this morning, including its title, which is taken from a James Broughton poem Verburg recited Sunday:

This is It.
This is really It
This is all there is.
And it’s perfect as It is.

There is nowhere to go
but Here.
There is nothing here
but Now.
There is nothing now
but This.

And this is It.
This is really It
This is all there is.
And it’s perfect as It is.

 

Tell me about the title. What poem did it come from, and why did you select it for this project?

James Broughton wrote “AS IT IS No. 2,” the poem I recited. The word “again” was added to the title of my book for a couple reasons. One is that I’ve used his title before, as the title of a triptych of olive trees; and the other is that the word “again” evokes the seasons recurring, and the fact that we depend of the seasons shifting every year. It would be a horrible shock if winter didn’t turn into spring every year. And yet, when we are really socked in, winter seems quite permanent, doesn’t it? After 30 Minnesota winters, I made these images in Italy, walking uphill with my camera and tripod every day for three months, up to the Roman aqueduct, knowing that an almond tree would bloom at some point.  Although it felt–chilly day after chilly rainy day–as though the tree would never bloom, one day it did, and it was absolutely THRILLING.

Is there precedence for artist-made books for iPad? How is this different from previous projects?

I have heard that David Hockney is doing a project with iPad drawings. I think it is a blog, but I haven’t checked it out. Maybe it’s a book. I know many photographers will translate their pre-existing fine art photography books from hardbound to iPad. But as far as we know, this is the first fine art photography book made specifically to be experienced on an iPad.

Tell me about the images — where did you shoot them and what captured you about that place?

As for the location from which the images were made, there is a lovely tradition of taking the same walk every day in Italy, called the passagiata. I love the little road where these pictures were made. It makes a circle below the fortress in an Italian hill town in Umbria. Over the days, weeks, months, and years, I’ve seen many of the same people and their dogs walk there. The people become older, the dogs, too, then there are new puppies, and so on. Meanwhile, the seasons come and go, and the aqueduct changes, too, but a much slower tempo. I’m interested in the different tempos, all occurring simultaneously as we live our lives, observing the big picture and tiny details.

JoAnn Verburg, center, with Scott Nedrelow and Ruben Nusz of Location Books, “an artist-run independent publisher that gives contemporary artists the opportunity to produce new work in book [and now iPad] form.”

Feminism and Yves Klein’s Anthropométries

At a graduate student in art history, I was excited to be working at the Walker as a public relations and marketing intern when the Yves Klein: With the Void, Full Powers exhibition arrived here last October, after its presentation at the Hirshhorn in Washington, D.C. Its challenge to viewers to experience the art of pure color as envisioned […]

At a graduate student in art history, I was excited to be working at the Walker as a public relations and marketing intern when the Yves Klein: With the Void, Full Powers exhibition arrived here last October, after its presentation at the Hirshhorn in Washington, D.C. Its challenge to viewers to experience the art of pure color as envisioned by Klein is alluring, but while taking a course last fall on feminist theory in art, I became particularly interested in Klein’s artistic philosophy with his Anthropométries. I decided to do some digging in the Walker library—which is open not just to Walker staff, but also to the general public by appointment—to see how Klein’s usage of nude females in these works — as both “living brushes” and “pure color” — might relate to feminist concepts of “the ideal” or “empowered” woman.

1 – Klein’s “Suaire de Mondo Cane,” 1961. See credits below.

Klein’s idea for the Anthropométries stemmed in part from his practice in judo, as he became fascinated by the markings left on the mat as a judo fighter fell. His initial experiment into using the human figure as a medium dates back to June 1958 in a friend’s apartment. It was here that he first applied blue paint to a nude model and guided her in rolling across a sheet of paper that had been placed on the floor. Surprisingly, this initial work troubled Klein. To him, the heavily-coated paint traces left by the body on the paper were too much about the workings of chance and spontaneity. However, he continued to be intrigued with the idea of using “living brushes” and in February 1960 staged a live public premiere at his own apartment utilizing his new medium.Klein gave a signal to his model Jacqueline to first undress and then to cover her breasts, stomach, and thighs in blue paint. Under his supervision and direction, she pressed herself against a sheet of paper fixed to the wall.The torso and thighs of the female body had been reduced to pure essentials; to Klein, it was an anthropometric symbol that served as the pure canon of human proportion, and he called it “the most concentrated expression of vital energy imaginable.” He believed that the model’s impressions represent the “health that brings humans into being,” and that their presence in the work “transcends personal presence.”

My library research brought me to an article from Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society, in a special 2006 issue, “New Feminist Theories of Visual Culture.” In “Behind Enemy Lines: Toxic Titties Infiltrate,” the collection of writers/feminist art collective known “Toxic Titties” compares a Vanessa Beecroft performance at the Gagosian Gallery  with Klein’s Anthropométries, and they are quick to judge Klein’s artistic process. The collective’s Julia Steinmetz views Klein’s usage of nude females as “live brushes” as the artist distancing himself from his subject matter and thus his artistic process. As Klein attempts to create art in this detached state, directing his models to smear themselves with paint and roll on the floor or press against a wall, inevitably the artist-to-model relationship develops into a power dynamic.

Criticizing Klein for this “authoritative power struggle,” the article questions whether Klein considered the notion that those with power or authority often have the ability to remove or distance themselves from a dirty, uncomfortable environment. By “conducting” the motions of beautiful nude models, Klein has ultimate control over his female subjects, thus limiting the female body not only as an object for the male gaze, but also as a tool for representing, expressing, and enforcing patriarchal values.

2 – Yves Klein and a model during an Anthropometry performance at the Galerie internationale d’art contemporain, March 9, 1960. See credits below.

Contrary to Steinmetz’s view, the critic Pierre Restany, who described his close friend Klein as a visionary who “charmed and stimulated [me],” took a chance on the artist in 1955 mainly because his artistic philosophy and process abandoned centuries of traditional, conservative, classic French art. It was Restany who  came up with the title Anthropométries de l’époque bleue; looking at this body of work in more formal and even spiritual terms rather than social or feminist ones, he marveled at Klein’s usage of just one color in the Anthropométries because it “took art beyond the art of painting. The work moved beyond the incorporation of art into architecture, and beyond vibration as a sign of life.”

To Restany, the Anthropométries emptied all previous perceptions of line and form and focused only on color. It is here, he felt, that the spirituality of art is born; those who would see the Anthropométries as performance or body art simply did not understand Klein’s notions of energy or his ideas of “pure color.”

I see the value in both of these perspectives, especially as a woman. But I still find it difficult to disregard Klein’s artistry and innovation. He recognized and admired the workings of past artistic geniuses, but also felt so many traditions were far too academic and imprisoned the artist to just their studio and the subject. Klein’s use of “living brushes” was an effort to break out of this mold. He believed himself reincarnated not by the shape of the female body, but instead by the emotional atmosphere it embodied.

Perhaps a healthy compromise between these views on Klein’s Anthropométries exists in the artist’s own attempt to explain his use of the female nude: “Certainly the entire body consists of flesh, but the essential mass is the trunk and thighs. It is there that once finds the true universe hidden by our perceptions.”

Image Credits

(1) Yves Klein. Suaire de Mondo Cane [Mondo Cane Shroud], 1961. Dry pigment and synthetic resin on gauze. 108 x 118-1/2 in. (274.3 x 301 cm). Collection Walker Art Center. Gift of Alexander Bing, T. B. Walker Foundation, Art Center Acquisition Fund, Professional Art Group I and II, Mrs. Helen Haseltine Plowden, Dr. Alfred Pasternak, Dr. Maclyn C. Wade, by exchange, with additional funds from the T. B. Walker Acquisition Fund, 2004. © 2010 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP, Paris

(2) Yves Klein and a model during an Anthropometry performance at the Galerie internationale d’art contemporain, March 9, 1960. Courtesy Yves Klein Archive  © 2010 Artists Rights Society (ARS), New York/ADAGP, Paris. Photo by Shunk-Kender, Photo © Roy Lichtenstein Foundation

Sources

Klein, Yves, and Klaus Ottmann. Overcoming the Problematics of Art: the Writings of Yves Klein. Putnam: Spring Publ, 2007. 185-94. Print.

Ottmann, Klaus, and Yves Klein. Yves Klein by Himself: His Life and Thought. Paris: Editions Dilecta, 2010. 235+. Print.

Steinmetz, Julie, Heather Cassils, and Clover Leary. “Behind Enemy Lines: Toxic Titties Infiltrate.” Signs: Journal of Women in Culture and Society 31.3 (2006): 1-30. Web.

Weitemeier, Hannah, and Yves Klein. Yves Klein, 1928-1962: International Klein Blue. Benedikt Taschen, 1995. 51-65. Print.

Words + Pictures: Alec Soth’s winner for Flickr assignment #4

With the annnouncement of a winner for his fourth group photo project on Flickr, Alec Soth winds up a series that has been running in conjunction with From Here to There: Alec Soth’s America, the Walker survey closing January 2. He writes:  “Thanks to everyone who participated in the 4th and final Flickr assignment. I’ve learned so […]

With the annnouncement of a winner for his fourth group photo project on Flickr, Alec Soth winds up a series that has been running in conjunction with From Here to There: Alec Soth’s America, the Walker survey closing January 2. He writes: 

“Thanks to everyone who participated in the 4th and final Flickr assignment. I’ve learned so much from these assignments and love the way they relate to my exhibition at the Walker. The reason this exhibition is called ‘From Here To There’ is to emphasize that the process of making pictures is as important to me as the subject I’m photographing. In a sense, my movement through America is the subject.

With these Flickr assignments, I’ve been trying to guide participants toward revealing their own process. The idea of this final assignment was to use text to narrate the photographer’s encounters. In many ways this assignment harkened back to the winner of our 1st assignment, Etienne Courtois. In fact, the runner-up, Vincent Lestienne’s hysterical abécédaire, reminded me a great deal of Courtois’ sophisticated humor. But in the end I chose the more raw and direct series, hide and seek, by Pavel K. Hailo.

1_from-here-to-there

So thanks again to everyone for participating. Hope to see you again somewhere down the road.

 

The amateur effect: Alec Soth’s winner for Flickr assignment #3

Alec Soth writes: Thanks to everyone who participated in the 3rd From Here To There Flickr assignment. The assignment was to take a picture of a non-photographer and then have this person take a picture of you. My hope was to illustrate that amateur photographs are often as good or better than those made by ‘serious’ […]

Alec Soth writes:
Thanks to everyone who participated in the 3rd From Here To There Flickr assignment. The assignment was to take a picture of a non-photographer and then have this person take a picture of you. My hope was to illustrate that amateur photographs are often as good or better than those made by ‘serious’ photographers. An inspiration was a project I saw in Foam Magazine called Manélud. In this series, the photographer Breno Rotatori would snap a picture of his 82-year-old grandmother at the same moment that she photographed him:

What I love about Rotatori’s project is its utter simplicity. Neither he nor his grandmother are trying to make great art. But the combination of their images allows the viewer to see things in a new way.

My favorite Flickr #3 participant, Andie Wilkinson, also captured this quality of effortlessness.

Thomas

Some of this can be attributed to the fact that Andie was working with children (As some of you know, I have my own interest in his area). But I don’t want to downplay Wilkonson’s excellent work. You might remember that she nearly won our first Flickr contest with these entries. What I love about her submissions to this assignment was the way her images worked so well in combination with her subject’s pictures:

Frank

So bravo to Andie and to her collaborators. Stay tuned for the fourth and final assignment.

UPDATE — Alec just announced Flickr Assignment #4:

So much of the photography I love is less about a particular subject than it is a communication of the photographer’s process. What all of the previous assignments had in common was that they were an excuse to get out the door and encounter the world. For the fourth and final assignment, I want to make the communication of these encounters even more explicit through the use of narration. This is as much a writing assignment as it is a photo assignment. But I also want the writing to be visually compatible with the photographs.

One could approach this in a similar way to the earthworks artist Richard Long:

Richard Long: One thing leads to another - Everything is connected

Or one might use handwriting like Jim Goldberg:

No fun [by Jim Goldberg]

The point is to communicate your experience through the combination of text and image. Just remember, less is more. Elaborate photographs and flowery text are incompatible. Simple pictures and simple text generally work best.

So here is the final assignment:

1)   Plan an encounter (meet a stranger on Craigslist, find the highest place in your city, go on an eight mile walk, etc).
2)   Document your encounter with photographs & text
3)   Important: combine your text and image in a single file
4)   Submissions are due by December 28th. Winners will be announced by January 1st.

Enjoy the ride…

Alec

Alec Soth’s Third Flickr Project Well Underway

Alec Soth’s third and latest Flickr project is in full gear aiming to have partiicpants find answers to the question, “Why are amateur photographer’s so damn good?” Soth has directed participants first to take a picture of a non-photographer; then have the non-photographer take a picture of them using either the same camera or a […]

Alec Soth’s third and latest Flickr project is in full gear aiming to have partiicpants find answers to the question, “Why are amateur photographer’s so damn good?” Soth has directed participants first to take a picture of a non-photographer; then have the non-photographer take a picture of them using either the same camera or a different one. These images are then placed side by side with a brief description of who this person is (friend, lover, stranger, child, etc.). By asking participants to be photographed themselves, it appears that immediately this assignment has them adventuring outside of their comfort zone behind the lens.

9stars:comments:

It’s uncomfortable having my camera pointed at me, but I’m enjoying seeing what they do with it. I think both of their pictures are better then the ones I took but obviously it’s because I’m such a great model ;) Hahahaha!

No doubt the first of a few additions :)

EvisNP relates assignment 3 to a “directing” experience:

The top picture is me . I directed (directed …whoa!) so much of it not much was left apart from pressing the button …but I had to feel comfortable (didn’t) and I hate having my picture taken. The second one of a pal was a bit experimental but I was pleased that something of the persona still comes through. Oh and we are both chess players. Hence a wee bit of the black and white.

The winning short story for Alec Soth’s Flickr Assignment 2

Alec Soth announced a winner for his second flickr assignment this morning — a challenge that had participants opening a story by photographing a stranger, and asking that person to show them something. As he did with the first assignment, he singled out some honorable mentions first: “I love everything about these Flickr assignments except […]

Alec Soth announced a winner for his second flickr assignment this morning — a challenge that had participants opening a story by photographing a stranger, and asking that person to show them something.

As he did with the first assignment, he singled out some honorable mentions first:

“I love everything about these Flickr assignments except for one thing: having to pick a winner.

How can I choose between 9Stars infectious enthusiasm (1,2,3 assignments!):
www.flickr.com/photos/jessicaalpern/sets/72157625073773324/
www.flickr.com/photos/jessicaalpern/sets/72157625153961228/
www.flickr.com/photos/jessicaalpern/sets/72157625187875712/
Ashly Stohl’s sweet story;
Jen Trail’s Facebook discovery;
Worsham’s trailer park;
Steven Lang’s palm sander;
Meghan Rennie’s childhood neighborhood;
Ramon Mas’s Jesus;
Al Cafone’s wild night

So many good stories…and good pictures too. But some of my favorite images were the ones that Ben Roberts found during his story: five slides, five great pictures:

Why are amateur photographs so damn good?

Then I saw the pictures of Manuela Costalima (iwishiwereinvisible):
www.flickr.com/photos/iwishiwereinvisible/sets/7215762511…

Maybe not ‘professional’ and maybe not perfectly edited, but there is something irresistible about these images. In many ways they reminded me of the light touch of Italian greats like Guido Guidi and Luigi Ghirri. The images have the feeling of an everyday glance. They already feel just as good as vintage amateur pictures.”

Manuela’s short story begins here:

 “i saw this triangle house in my neighbourhood just the other day and thought it would be nice to photograph it. this curious architecture should shelter interesting people…”

photo

and then goes off in some unexpected and delightful directions — click here for the rest

And for Alec Soth’s third flickr assignment, click here.

Staging Yves Klein’s “Blue Revolution”

Walker staff photographer Cameron Wittig took these images last Friday as curators and crew installed artworks for the Yves Klein: With the Void, Full Powers retrospective. One visitor at the presentation at the Hirshhorn in Washington, D.C. called it “flawlessly curated,” “an utter delight,” and “worthy of repeated visits” (all in the same sentence!); at the […]

Walker staff photographer Cameron Wittig took these images last Friday as curators and crew installed artworks for the Yves Klein: With the Void, Full Powers retrospective. One visitor at the presentation at the Hirshhorn in Washington, D.C. called it “flawlessly curated,” “an utter delight,” and “worthy of repeated visits” (all in the same sentence!); at the Washington Post, critic Blake Gopnik opened his review with a proclamation: “Of all the dazzling stuff on this planet, not much beats the art of Yves Klein.” (See also reviews by  by Roberta Smith at the New York Times and Peter Schjeldahl at the New Yorker.)

The exhibition goes on view this Friday during a Walker After Hours preview party (tickets here) and opens officially on Saturday, when co-curators Kerry Brougher and Philippe Vergne (below left and right) also participate with Daniel Moquay from the Yves Klein Archives in an opening-day talk. (Click on images for a larger view.)

Co-curators Kerry Brougher and Philippe Vergne

The Stories of Strangers: Alec Soth’s “From Here to There” Flickr Project: Assignment 2

With two weeks down, participants in Alec Soth’s Flickr project have been asked to be brave, curious souls and venture out into the world to tell a short story through pictures. As a way of generating the story, Soth asked participants to first find and photograph a stranger, then “Ask the stranger to show you […]

With two weeks down, participants in Alec Soth’s Flickr project have been asked to be brave, curious souls and venture out into the world to tell a short story through pictures. As a way of generating the story, Soth asked participants to first find and photograph a stranger, then “Ask the stranger to show you something (their house, their car, their cat, their body, etc).”

From there … well, things could go in any number of directions, as evidenced by this early entry from Benjamin Borley (bart1eby) , whose story presented here eventually explored his views on graffiti.

“I was wondering whether I was going to be brave enough for this one when chance threw an opportunity my way.”

Benjamin Borley, "I"

“On the way into town I was stopped by a woman with beautiful blue eyes.”

Benjamin Borley, "II"

“I’m a spastic,” she said, “I’m allowed to call myself that.”

Benjamin Borley, "III"

“She asked me to read the graffiti for her because her eyes weren’t too good.”

Benjamin Borley, "IV"

“I’m not sure,” I said.”

Benjamin Borley, "V"

 “But I think the middle word is love.”

Benjamin Borley, "VI"

 “She didn’t like that and told us about a graffiti wall that the council had set up.”

Benjamin Borley, "VII"

 She much preferred the graffiti there.

Benjamin Borley, "VIII"

 “For the rest of the day I was more aware of the graffiti.”

Benjamin Borley, "IX"

“I wondered whether it was art.”

Benjamin Borley, "X"

“or vandalism.”

Benjamin Borley, "XI"

 “and whether I preferred it on the walls of the city.”

Benjamin Borley, "XII"

“or on the walls of shops.”

Benjamin Borley, XIII

 “and on greeting cards…”

See how other photographers’ stories are coming along here — or join in the project yourself.

Alec Soth’s “From Here to There” Flickr project: Assignment 2

After commenting on images and selecting a winning photographer for Assignment 1 – The Treasure Hunt,  Alec Soth has announced his next assignment, open to all at Flickr.com: “In the 1st Flickr assignment, I often found myself responding to the story behind the picture. I was particularly taken with Hannah’s (gofeego) stories of her travels. […]

After commenting on images and selecting a winning photographer for Assignment 1 – The Treasure Hunt,  Alec Soth has announced his next assignment, open to all at Flickr.com:

“In the 1st Flickr assignment, I often found myself responding to the story behind the picture. I was particularly taken with Hannah’s (gofeego) stories of her travels. And the winner of the 1st assignment, Etienne Courtois, provided wonderfully cryptic back stories for his images.

So for assignment #2, I want participants to tell a short story. But to get the story going, I’ve added the following steps:

1) Find and photograph a stranger
2) Ask the stranger to show you something (their house, their car, their cat, their body, etc).
3) Based on what they show you, make another picture, or series of pictures.

For example, photograph a man you meet you meet on the side of the road. Ask the man if he has any hobbies. If he tells you he builds model airplanes, go to his house and photograph his airplanes. Then go to a model airplane club.

The only rule is that all images should be new. The deadline for posting is October 25th. Post all of your images together in a set marked ‘From Here To There: Assignment #2.’  Add text captions to the images when necessary. Winners will be chosen by November 1st.”

To join in, go to the “From Here to There” Flickr page.

Alec Soth’s Flickr pool party: comments (& winner) for Assignment 1

  Not one to do things halfway, when Alec Soth decided to do a Flickr photo project with the public in conjunction with his survey show here, he actually expanded the idea into multiple “assignments.” Earlier this week, 732 participants finished up Assignment #1 (“The Treasure Hunt”), uploading 1,275 images and generating some great discussions […]

 

Not one to do things halfway, when Alec Soth decided to do a Flickr photo project with the public in conjunction with his survey show here, he actually expanded the idea into multiple “assignments.” Earlier this week, 732 participants finished up Assignment #1 (“The Treasure Hunt”), uploading 1,275 images and generating some great discussions on photography in the process.

Here’s Soth’s take on The Treasure Hunt:

“I’ve just looked at the 1000+ entries to the 1st Flickr assignment and I’m blown away by the results. The assignment was to photograph from a number of categories. Here were some favorite individual images:

Pilot:
pilot

Amateur Painting:
.

Unusually Tall People:
...

Museum Guards:

Sleeping Children:
trampoline

Neighborhood Bars:
Bartender, Hattiesburg MS

Supermarket Cashiers

Sheep:

Sedans:
sedan2

Suitcases:

All of this is, of course, just personal taste.  I doubt everyone loves that suitcase picture (by Erik Neufurth), for example. But I’m a sucker for this kind of dumb immediacy. It reminds me a bit of one of my favorite photographers, Lars Tunbjork. And I’m a big fan of Erik’s entire approach to the project. He decided to take just a single picture of each item without going further than 10 kilometers from his bed. I love these kinds of limitations. In the end, Erik produced a number of my favorite pictures. See the whole set here.

I would like Erik’s pictures without knowing about his strategy, but sometimes the story behind the series does add a lot. A great example of this is Hannah (gofeetgo). Hannah produced a number of excellent images, but I was equally inspired by her writing. Through the course of her From Here To There project, we follow Hannah from Taiwan to a road trip around America. Along the way she wrote poignantly about this project:

Before we moved to Taiwan, my husband photographed his job for ten years. He was a paramedic in a rural North Florida county. His everyday process has always been very lyric, using his cell phone and pocket camera more like a notebook, uploading to flickr frequently, and just charging ahead through ideas. The initial transition to Taiwan, and now back to the states had him a little lost for a way to a “real” story, it had left him something unsatisfied about his pictures.

I showed him your blog post about your business card and Frank’s quote. Then I told him last night to write a list. And he did. This morning he read it to me. It’s beautiful. Here’s just a few of my favorites: drug company giveaways, re-purposed chain store, “someday this car will rise again”, sensible haircuts…

Anyway, it hit us that we’ve been listing all along, but in our heads. There’s a mental list of collected observations that come to shape what and how we see a place, but damned if we always get a picture of them. The list makes you do it. Perhaps, photography-wise this process can make having no bearings more bearable.

So what is the list in your head?

The list I provided was my own, but it was also over ten years old. My list of current interests are quite a bit different. Nonetheless, I loved the different approaches people took. It was almost impossible coming up with favorite set. Check out these excellent submissions by Lost in St. Leonards, Jen Trail, Tony Huang. My runner up was Andie Wilkinson. As shown above, her ‘pilot’ and ‘sleeping child’ pictures were two of my favorites. And all of Andie’s images have a kind of dark lyricism.

But I have to give the prize to Etienne Courtois. Not all of the pictures are related to the list, but all were made during the journey to complete the project. And his images manage to both have a story but also remain mysterious:

It is true that Etienne broke a lot of rules. His sleeping child is wide awake. But art isn’t math. There is always room to play.

So congrats to Etienne and everyone else who participated in the 1st assignment. Stay tuned for assignment #2.”

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