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A Listener’s Guide to Kenneth Anger’s Scorpio Rising

A swift and dense Eisensteinian montage of leather-clad bikers and hustlers, road accidents, Hollywood stars, comic strips, Christian icons, Nazi imagery, and a simulated orgy, Kenneth Anger’s Scorpio Rising (screening at the Walker this week) stands as one of the most widely seen and influential masterpieces of American cinema. Anger completed the film in late […]

Anger 97.f004 (a,b)_001 Ruben / Bentson Film and Video Study Collection: Film in the Cities FV2012_stills_0622_014 Film Title: Scorpio Rising  Filmmaker: Kenneth Anger Production date: 1963 Still made from a 16mm print

Still from Kenneth Anger’s Scorprio Rising (1964), via the Ruben Bentson Film and Video Study Collection, Walker Art Center. © Kenneth Anger

A swift and dense Eisensteinian montage of leather-clad bikers and hustlers, road accidents, Hollywood stars, comic strips, Christian icons, Nazi imagery, and a simulated orgy, Kenneth Anger’s Scorpio Rising (screening at the Walker this week) stands as one of the most widely seen and influential masterpieces of American cinema. Anger completed the film in late 1963, only a few weeks before the Kennedy assassination. He would later summarize Scorpio Rising as “a death mirror held up to American culture,” and as society seemed to unravel in the years that followed, audiences flocked to peer into Anger’s morbid looking glass.

In the 1960s, Anger was one of a number of avant-garde filmmakers who received national attention as part of mainstream fascination with “the underground” and all things counter-cultural. Scorpio Rising garnered special attention after a Los Angeles theater manager was found guilty of obscenity in 1964 for screening Anger’s film, which includes brief flashes of nudity and unabashed homoeroticism. The ruling was later overturned, and by 1966, Variety reported that screenings of the film at the Bleecker Street Cinema in Greenwich Village (on a double bill with Jonas Mekas’s The Brig) “started racking up more money than the proprietors had ever seen,” encouraging a subsequent national release. This same year, Scorpio Rising unspooled for the first time at the Walker, as part of what was seems to have been the museum’s earliest series devoted to American experimental film; atypical of the Walker’s film screenings at the time, the show was billed as “not suitable for children.” Elsewhere across the country, canny theater owners promoted Anger’s work as a biker exploitation flick and/or “all-male” pornography, and black-and-white 16mm bootlegs of Scorpio Rising are rumored to have circulated in West Coast gay bars of the time. The film’s hip notoriety was such that a 1967 New York Times profile entitled “From Underground: Kenneth Anger Rising” even attributed the fashion trend for leather jackets and biker gear to Scorpio Rising’s success. The film’s debut “drew a crowd that included in-the-groove psychoanalysts, artists and art critics, and a representation of what the inflamed imaginations of news-magazine editorialists see as ‘the homosexual Mafia’ of hairdressers, dress designers and decorators,” the Times stated. “Almost overnight, display windows of elegant uptown boutiques had wicked motorcycle chains thrown over plush velvet couches, and models in couture dresses, poised between the handlebars of motorcycles… Leather and goggles became standard gear for both sexes for doing the galleries on the upper East Side, as well as the bars on the lower West.”

One of the groovy art critics the Times spotted at Scorpio Rising’s debut may well have been Gregory Battcock, who discussed the film in a 1967 essay on “New Experiments in Cinema,” calling it “perhaps the most famous” experimental title of its day and an “apt contribution toward the understanding of film and the ‘pop’ image.” Indeed, Scorpio Rising’s images of James Dean and Lil’ Abner funnies wouldn’t be out of place in the Pop paintings of the time, but the most prominent artifacts of commercial culture used in the film are the needle-drop recordings of rock and roll 45s than Anger employed as Scorpio Rising’s soundtrack. In the film, Anger uses thirteen songs—an appropriately occult number for a professed follower of Aleister Crowley—laid down back-to-back over its 26 minutes. None of the songs would have been obscure to American audiences of the time: all placed highly on the Billboard charts, with 10 titles ranking as top five singles. “It was pop music that was playing the summer of 1963, when I was filming,” Anger explained to scholar Scott MacDonald in 2004. The lineup includes three girl groups (The Angels, Martha and the Vandellas, and The Crystals) and three teen idols (Ricky Nelson, Bobby Vinton, Elvis Presley), eight songs by white artists and five by African-American performers. The mix now captures the spirit of rock and roll at the trailing end of its first decade, when Phil Spector’s “Wall of Sound” aesthetic dominated the radio, just before the British Invasion arrived to rearrange the musical landscape.

While rock and roll had been used in the movies as far back as Blackboard Jungle (1955) which featured Bill Haley and the Comets’ “Rock Around the Clock” over its opening credits to add an air of juvenile delinquency, Scorpio Rising was the first film to use pop music for advanced artistic effect rather than mere youth appeal, harnessing its emotional powers through enigmatically contrapuntal editing. As Carel Rowe notes, the songs “serve not only as a means of organization but also as an ironic narrative.” Scorpio Rising’s long influence can be seen and heard in the rock soundtrack of Easy Rider (1969), the pointed use of pop music in the films of Martin Scorsese (who cites seeing Scorpio Rising in college as a formative event), and the quasi-narrative design of the music video. Anger himself continued to employ pop music and its performers: The Paris Sisters’s haunting “Dream Lover” plays over Kustom Kar Kommandos (1965); Mick Jagger’s Moog noodlings provide the background noise to Invocation of My Demon Brother (1969); and Anger commissioned Jimmy Page to create a soundtrack for Lucifer Rising (1980), subsequently replacing it by a guitar-driven prog rock composition by imprisoned Manson Family member Bobby Beausoleil.

Anger’s technique of pairing sound and image has been traced both to Eisenstein’s theory of “chromophonic” editing and Crowley’s theory of occult “correspondences” between disparate elements (the latter being most thoroughly explored in Rowe’s writings on Anger). For Anger, magick and cinema are the same art—“Making a movie is like casting a spell,” he told the Times in 1967—and music has a special role to play. “It may be conceded in any case that the long strings of formidable words which roar and moan through so many conjurations have a real effect in exalting the consciousness of the magician to the proper pitch,” Crowley wrote in Magick in Theory and Practice (1929), “that they should do so is no more extraordinary than music of any kind should do so.” Anger includes this quote in his notes for Scorpio Rising, published in 1966. We might also consider a technological influence. As film historian Juan A. Suárez has noted, Anger cites one inspiration for Scorpio Rising’s soundtrack as a visit to Coney Island in 1962, where he first encountered teenagers playing pop music on the beach from little transistor radios. Portable music added a soundtrack to the world, making everyday life that much more like the movies. At the same time, the rise of the 45rpm single allowed for the same song to be played over and over again, its lyrics sinking into a lonely teenager’s soul.

What follows are annotations to each song used in Scorpio Rising, listed in order of inclusion. They are written after weeks of repeated listening.

1. “Fools Rush In (Where Angels Fear to Tread),” Ricky Nelson, 1963

By the time Ricky Nelson released this song, he was already well-known to American audiences as one of the stars of the sitcom The Adventures of Ozzie and Harriet, which first began on radio and then ran on television from the early ’50s to 1966. His music career began with a 1957 cover of Fats Domino’s “I’m Walking,” made when he was 16. Like many pop songs of the period, “Fools Rush In” is also a cover, written in 1940 and recorded by Frank Sinatra, Glenn Miller, and numerous others: only a week after Nelson’s rockabilly rendition hit the airwaves, Lesley Gore released her own bossanova-inflected take.

Like all the songs featured in Scorpio Rising save the last, “Fools Rush In” is a love song. The smooth sound of Nelson’s voice and its attendant twangy instrumentation plays over opening shots of motorcycle parts, boots, and chains laid out on a grimy garage floor; the voice of America’s ultimate clean-cut, middle-class, suburban kid curiously clashes against images of an urban, working-class milieu. But as the song reaches it conclusion, Anger adds the roars of a motorcycle engine over Nelson’s words; a scorpion icon zooms in and out quickly, like a transition from an old Flash Gordon serial, and we see the title of the film written in silver studs on the back of a leather jacket. The man wearing the jacket turns around and we witness his bare chest, with the ends of the jacket’s belt flapping phallically at his waist. “Open up your heart,” Nelson begs, “and let this fool rush in,” as the figure walks towards the camera, the flesh of his hairy stomach coming to meet the lens. Nelson’s lyrics are thereby intensified: mere romantic urgency becomes a base, sexual desperation.

The astrological sign of Scorpio, ruled over by the planet Mars, has long been associated with sexual virility, excess, and violence. For example, Alan Leo, whose work forms the basis of modern astrology, wrote in 1899 that individuals born under the rising sign of Scorpio are “bold and warlike, inclined to rush into quarrels” and prone to “many secret love affairs.” Anger has stated that his own astrological sign is Aquarius with Scorpio rising. One might imagine that not just sex and violence but death, too, creeps into “Fools Rush In,” through the figure of Nelson, who grew, in the public eye, from a boy to a teenager to a man. Anger likewise claims to have been a child actor (often stating that he appeared at age eight as the Changeling Prince in Max Reinhardt and William Dieterle’s A Midsummer Night’s Dream [1935]) and completed his earliest extant film, Fireworks (1947), at age 20. The aging of celebrities prompts the contemplation of our own mortality: an inadvertent memento mori plays out upon the face of every star. In 1963, Anger, once an enfant terrible, was now a 36-year-old man. It seems impossible that he would not have considered the inexorable passage of time while hanging out with street toughs a generation younger and adding teenybopper tunes to their images.

2. “Wind-Up Doll,” Little Peggy March, 1963

One of the more obscure and disturbing cuts in Scorpio Rising, “Wind-Up Doll” was released as a B-side to Little Peggy March’s enduring “I Will Follow Him,” which appears later in the film. These are the only two songs by the same artist on the soundtrack, one the flip side of the other. In the lyrics, sung plaintively by March, a girl compares herself to a mechanical doll in an extended metaphor. “Wind me up I really walk, wind me up I really talk,” she sings, echoing the language of advertising, with herself as the commodity: “Wind me up and I’ll come straight to you.” Nothing could be farther from the spirit of Lesley Gore’s proto-feminist “You Don’t Own Me,” released the same year. Here, the young woman voids her own inner being for the sake of a boy’s love, promising to become a plaything for him, a mere automaton who can only respond to his actions. “You can see what makes me tick, little springs and gears,” she sings. “I can show you one more trick: break my heart, I’ll cry real tears.”

March’s voice plays over a montage of bikers fixing motorcycle engines intercut with footage of wind-up toy bikes. The sound of a tiny clockwork motor being wound by a key—a clever bit of nontraditional instrumentation used in the song—matches perfectly to shots of a biker twisting a wrench as he works. Thus a correspondence emerges between the woman, the toy, and the machine, all subject to male manipulation. Motorcycles are just big boy’s toys, fetish objects that play the role of the beloved. “The Power Machine seen as tribal totem,” Anger writes in his notes for the film, “from toy to terror.”

3. “My Boyfriend’s Back,” The Angels, 1963

The segment set to this girl-group classic begins and ends with a close-up of a skeleton clothed in a purple robe. After the song begins, we soon see that this ghoulish figure decorates part of a garage, overseeing a young man in a black t-shirt and jeans as he fusses with a motorcycle. The bike is an incongruously feminine mauve, repeating the color of the skeleton’s royal robes. The viewer is left to ponder whether the “boyfriend” of which The Angels speak is the young man, his motorcycle, or indeed Death itself. This context heightens the sense of sexualized violence in the song, underlying its schoolyard-taunt lyrics and rhythmic counting-rhyme clapping: if one listens closely to the narrative, it is about a girl telling one of her male classmates that her boyfriend is going kick the living shit out of him for spreading rumors about her. “‘Cause he’s kind of biiiig and aw-ful strong,” she sings, drawing out the words with coquettish innuendo.

4. “Blue Velvet,” Bobby Vinton, 1963

In Visionary Film, P. Adams Sitney relates an anecdote by Anger about how Vinton’s “Blue Velvet” came to be used in Scorpio Rising: “Anger once described his finding the fourth song as an example of ‘magick,’” he writes. “He said that he had completed the selection for all the other songs and needed something to go with this episode, in which three cyclists at different locations ritually dress themselves in leather and chains with the montage continually jumping from one to the other. Anger turned on his radio and exercised his will. Out came Bobby Vinton’s ‘She wore blue velvet,’ which when joined to the episode created precisely the sexual ambiguity Anger wanted in this scene.” The sexual ambiguity Sitney describes is produced immediately by the segment’s first shot, in which the camera pans slowly up the legs of biker’s jeans, settling on his waist as he buckles his open fly beneath a bare torso. Blue velvet becomes one with blue denim; Vinton sings of her satin dress as we see a young man in a leather jacket. In these lyrics, clothing becomes both a sexual fetish and a trigger for memory of a lost love. “She wore blue velvet,” Vinton sings, placing his beloved in the past, “precious and warm, a memory.”

5. “(You’re the) Devil in Disguise,” Elvis Presley, 1963

In perhaps the most typically Pop segment of the film, we see a biker (named Scorpio in Anger’s notes) lounging in a messy apartment with two Siamese cats, his walls covered with pin-ups of James Dean like a teenage girl’s bedroom, as he smokes cigarettes and reads the Sunday comics. A Dick Tracy panel reveals a pile of skull and bones; Lucy clobbers Charlie Brown. Anger begins to intercut shots taken off a television screen of Marlon Brando in The Wild One (1953), in which he plays the leader of a motorcycle gang. Fans of Dean and Elvis would have known that both stars were famous for loving motorcycles; all three idols had, at various points, been rumored to have had homosexual leanings. Here, again, an address to a female lover seems to map onto a male figure. “You look like an angel, walk like an angel, talk like an angel,” Elvis sings. “But I got wise. You’re the devil in disguise.” In occult traditions, the invocation of angels or devils provides the source of a magician’s power, and in this case, the two forces of good and evil have become indistinguishable.

6. “Hit the Road Jack,” Ray Charles, 1960

Anger employs “Hit the Road Jack” in a relatively unambiguous manner, playing it as Scorpio dresses and gets ready to leave his apartment, with a great deal of engine rumblings laid on top. The images switch quickly between shots of Scorpio donning a leather bracelet, grainy documentary-style footage of bikers riding around Coney Island, and more images of Brando on his motorcycle in The Wild One. A newspaper headline reads “Cycle Hits Hole & Kills Two” as Charles’s backup singers chant “Hit the road Jack, and don’t you come back no more.” Writing of this scene, critic Parker Tyler remarks that the journey from the “Leather Boy’s bedroom den … to the open road is also symbolic in that, according to Anger, it involves a death wish—final release into infinite space.”

7. “Heat Wave,” Martha and the Vandellas, 1963

So far, the songs have spoken about desire in terms of longing, loss, and rejection. But in this episode, Anger switches gears, and we are thrown into a musical celebration of the intoxicating euphoria of love. As a stomping backbeat opens the song, Scorpio tips his finger into a vial of white powder and raises it to his nostril, snorting a bump with a quick backwards nod. The film flashes a few frames of pure red, followed by a rapid close-up of a toy bike rider with shocked hair framing its Kewpie-doll face. “Whenever I’m with him, something inside starts to burning, and I’m filled with desire,” Martha Reeves belts out. “Could it be the devil in me, or is this the way love’s supposed to be?” Anger adds a bizarre set of animalistic sounds to Reeves’s vocals, reminiscent of a hyena’s jittering laugh. In “Heat Wave,” pleasure’s sweeping intensities can’t be distinguished from pain. “I don’t know what to do. My head’s in haze. It’s like a heat wave, burning in my heart. I can’t keep from crying. It’s tearing me apart.”

Scholars and critics have variously described the powder Scorpio insufflates as either cocaine or methamphetamine; the latter is more likely, given the relative popularity of the drug at the time. In either case, this moment serves as a prelude to the lysergic adventures of Anger’s later work, in which the effects of narcotics, art, and sorcery become one.

8. “He’s a Rebel,” The Crystals, 1963

As this Spector-produced paean to bad boys opens, we follow a boot-level view of Scorpio trudging through a grimy alleyway. “See the way he walks down the street,” the girls intone, functioning as a Greek chorus by way of Motown. To this Anger adds blue-tinted bits from a cheesy Bible picture, often cited as Family Film’s The Road to Jerusalem, which was likely a home-movie version edited from the 1952 television series The Living Bible. As with the magickal discovery of “Blue Velvet” on the radio, Anger claims that he found the 16mm reel of Road to Jerusalem sitting on his doorstep one day, mistakenly delivered to him instead of a nearby church. When Jesus heals a blind man’s sight, Scorpio, dressed in policeman drag, leaves fake tickets on motorcycles, and Anger throws in a blink-and-you’ll-miss-it shot of a penis emerging from a pair of jeans for fully profane effect. Scorpio’s gait matches that of Jesus trudging through the Holy Land with his disciples in tow. Through this montage of sound and image, the rebel merges with the savior, Scorpio with Christ, the hero with the lover, the cop with the criminal.

9. “Party Lights,” Claudine Clark, 1962

One-hit wonder Claudine Clark’s exuberant “Party Lights” opens what Anger has dubbed the “Walpurgis Night” episode, referencing the folkloric belief that, on the last evening of April, hordes of witches gather to worship their dark gods. Christmas lights shine in the spokes of a parked motorcycle as Clark and her backup singers testify: “Party lights, I see the party lights. They’re red and blue and green.” A gang of young men arrive in various demonic Halloween costumes and states of undress. One beefy biker shoves a pal’s head towards his tighty-whitey-clad crotch; another swishes past in what seems like a Mickey Mouse outfit. More images of Jesus and his crew propose blasphemous parallels, but also draw out the spiritual intimations of Clark’s language of revelation. In Theosophical literature, “Lucifer” is imagined as the “Bringer of Light,” an etymology that Anger has frequently cited; here, Lucifer melds with Jesus, “the light of the world” (John 8:12).

Critic Tony Rayns has praised this sequence for its complex use of editing. “Eisenstein’s ideal … is startlingly achieved in the ‘party lights’ sequence,” he wrote in 1969. “where [Clark’s] hard, dense arrangement of the song … is matched by a thickening in the terms of reference in the montage, while at the same time lyrics relate explicitly to the film’s development of its color scale … and produces film-making as rich in resonance as anything of Eisenstein’s own.”

10. “Torture,” Kris Jensen, 1962

11. “Point of No Return,” Gene McDaniels, 1962

“Torture” and “Point of No Return” are two largely forgotten songs, and the lowest Billboard charters of the bunch. Kris Jensen never saw another hit; Gene McDaniels would later work primarily as a producer and formidable songwriter, most notably for Roberta Flack, inserting Black consciousness and jazz rhythms into pop with songs like “Compared to What.” Here Jensen intones “You’re torturing me” to an unseen lover as more literal acts of fraternity-style torment appear: hot mustard poured precariously close to a man’s crotch as his buddies wrestle him to the ground; a subliminal shot of a bare ass scarred from abuse follows an image of Scorpio pointing downward at his boot, as if to command obedience. Anger adds the noises of men shouting, porcine squeals, and more engine rumbles as the film segues into McDaniel’s smoother, more upbeat number. But as we see footage of a motorbike rally, we think back to James Dean and his high-speed demise, and McDaniel’s lyrics take on a grim irony: “I’m at the point of no return and for me there’ll be no turning back.”

12. “I Will Follow Him,” Little Peggy March, 1963

By now, Anger’s montage reaches a fever pitch: images of Hitler appear with those of Christ, Anger’s purported co-star Mickey Rooney as Puck from A Midsummer’s Night Dream, and Scorpio waving a death’s-head flag, then pissing into his helmet on a darkened church’s altar. The sounds of zooming airplanes, explosions, and screams mix with March’s voice as she sings of her desperate and abject worship of “him.” Naziism is equated with Christianity, and the rebel is a dictator in disguise. Our familiarity with March’s canonical pop song evaporates as its lyrics reveal themselves for what they truly are: a hymn to masochism and the complete dissolution of the self. As she chants the song’s climax, each word is powered by the brutal thrust of violin strings. She yelps these words in clusters of three, as if to summon “him” through an incantation:

I LOVE HIM

I LOVE HIM

I LOVE HIM

 

AND WHERE HE GOES

I’LL FOLLOW

I’LL FOLLOW

I’LL FOLLOW

 

HE’LL ALWAYS BE

MY TRUE LOVE

MY TRUE LOVE

MY TRUE LOVE

 

FROM NOW UNTIL

FOREVER

FOREVER

FOREVER

Since at least its 1964 obscenity trial, Scorpio Rising has been interpreted an “anti-fascist” film. Rowe has quoted Anger as saying, “I find ridiculous the idea of anyone being The Leader,” and, indeed, Crowleyan philosophy does endorse a radical individualism. But if Scorpio Rising provides a critique of fascism, it only does so by evoking the perverse intensities of its pleasures, drawing out the erotic appeal of both domination and submission.

13. “Wipe Out,” The Surfaris, 1963

A breakout B-side to The Surfari’s now-unfamiliar hit “Surfer Joe,” this extended instrumental begins with a crashing sound followed by a drawn-out, echo-chambered stoner cackle that leads into the song’s only words: “Hahahahahaha … wipe out.” Nighttime footage of bikers careening through Brooklyn streets flips into a red-and-black firestorm of skulls, chains, go-go girls, gleaming chrome, and a flashing siren, culminating in the appearance of a biker prone on the ground, met by the sounds of arriving cops. On the biker’s arm we might barely read the Beatnik slogan of his tattoo: BLESSED, BLESSED OBLIVION. With the death of the biker, his subjection to the machine goes all the way to the point of self-destruction.

“Wipe Out” is the single track in Scorpio Rising that isn’t a love song. Instead, it celebrates courting danger on the ocean waves. But also marks a coming sea-change in American music, and the youth culture who supported it. “Wipe Out” portends the end of pop music’s coy innocence, announcing the coming reign of guitar-driven garage rock. The gnarly rhythms of “Wipe Out” would lead to other forms of oblivion—teenage wastelands thick with purple haze—that would in turn evolve into the nihilism of heavy metal and punk. Thus Scorpio Rising’s finale can be read as either heralding the death of American pop, or conjuring its occult transformation.

Kenneth Anger’s Scorpio Rising screens at the Walker August 20, 2015, as part of International Pop Cinema.

Flow: James Richards’ Radio at Night

The first in a series of Moving Image Commissions premiered in the Walker during Cinema and released June 1 for a limited run online, James Richards new 8-minute film, Radio at Night (2015) responds to the legacy of late British filmmaker Derek Jarman. Here, Bentson Scholar Isla Leaver-Yap discusses the mechanical mediations of sensuality and flow. A painter, writer, queer political activist, and […]

James Richards, 'Radio at Night', 2015, video

James Richards, Radio at Night, 2015, video

The first in a series of Moving Image Commissions premiered in the Walker during Cinema and released June 1 for a limited run online, James Richards new 8-minute film, Radio at Night (2015) responds to the legacy of late British filmmaker Derek Jarman. Here, Bentson Scholar Isla Leaver-Yap discusses the mechanical mediations of sensuality and flow.

A painter, writer, queer political activist, and filmmaker, Derek Jarman (1942–1994) took a synthetic approach to his art. His dexterous approach to composition, as well as his ability to blend the painterly aspects of celluloid film with the nascent technologies of video, reveals his integrationist thinking. Jarman’s films especially are characterized by the sensual interplay of human figures and the environments they inhabit. Candidly probing representations of bodies, relationships and aesthetics, his legacy continues to have a profound effect on the creation and future possibilities of queer cinema.

Artist James Richards frequently cites Jarman as an inspiration for his own work, and Radio at Night is an explicit expression of the late filmmaker’s influence. Echoing Jarman’s collage techniques and inverted color palettes, as well as revealing Richards’ own embrace of sound as a complex force that might govern the behavior of an image, the contemporary artists’ new 8-minute video is a spectral meditation on the human figure as a space of sensual integration.

Radio at Night is a work suffused with openings, holes and voids: eyes, mouths, viewfinders, geysers (as well as violent openings: surgical incisions and bullet holes). Whether literal or metaphorical, bodily apertures are both the subject of the work and the tools for its reception. Here, sound and image relentlessly commune to remind the viewer of their materiality. These are substances that are, in essence, physical; they flow into our aural and retinal cavities prior to recognition, sense and interpretation.

“I wanted to create a sense of the material as something channeled,” says Richards of Radio at Night, “rather than something taken.” Channeling—perhaps more usefully reinscribed as “flow”—is central to the artists’ work, and especially to Radio at Night. “Flow” not only articulates the artist’s continuous circulation of sound and image throughout this work and others (Richards’ often recycles and adapts material from one video to the next, drawing from his growing stockpile), but also describes the absorption, integration and transmission of material. The diversity of Richards sources—home movies, pornography, instructional videos, spoken word records, and the artists’ own burgeoning collection of self-shot footage—are unmoored from their original contexts and synthesized into a different logic. And yet the appropriated material always retains a single element or trace residue for which it was first gleaned by the artist: a specific noise, gesture, color or mood.

James Richards, 'Radio at Night', 2015, video

James Richards, Radio at Night, 2015, video

The American artist Steve Reinke, a previous collaborator of Richards’, describes the latter artist’s approach to source material as one of “narrative and affect suspension.” Rerouted from their initial context, materials transition from one state to another, repurposed not into another narrative but an environment in which the original footage is a complicit collaborator. So, too, one is subjected to Radio at Night as one is subjected to an environment. In an environment, sound is resonant, while vision is evident. In the video, the former consistently dominates the latter; switches in tone precipitate cuts or inversions of video action, and tonal pauses remove the presence of the image altogether.

Philosopher Jean-Luc Nancy has described the relationship between sound and the body as a sonorous event: “a time that opens up, that is hollowed out, that is enlarged or ramified, that envelops or separates, that becomes or is turned into a loop, that stretches or contracts.” Nancy’s evocative and metaphorically anal description operates under the premise that one submits to a sonorous event. In other words, one can close one’s eyes, but not one’s ears. The sonorous event is an environment rather than a score and, in this way, it finds striking similarity to the intentions of ambient music, a genre that seeks to favor atmosphere over structure. For Radio at Night, this parallel is significant. Not only does its soundtrack give a nod to the ambient output of experimental music group and regular Jarman collaborators, Coil, but it also conceptually echoes Coil’s central inquiry, which was emblazoned on the sleeve of their 1984 debut album, How to Destroy Angels: “How sound can affect the physical and mental state of the serious listener.” Whether by accident or design, Coil emphasize sound’s power to affect materiality first, and perception second.

In Richards’ work, sound subjects the listener to specific acoustic architectures in order to influence the reading of onscreen images, especially those that indicate the human figure. In Radio at Night, as well as its precursor Raking Light (2014), the soundtrack includes familiar sounds of digital technologies that occur in close proximity to the body—namely, the sounds of “personal devices”: a small camera and its microphone scraping along the surface of a table, the noise of a hard drive “thinking,” a hard wind rushing into an unshielded microphone, for example. These sounds are frequently paired with the typically depersonalized imagery of instructional videos, documentary films, and medical photographs. Nearness and anonymity are thus bridged and paired. So too the title of the work infers such a hierarchy. In a reference to a text by Richards’ late friend and artist Ian White (1971–2013), the phrase “radio at night” captures the idea of an atmosphere authored by sound that is mediated and brought into being by technology. Radio is, after all, a transmission that is public in broadcast, and yet private in reception.

In contrast to his earlier output, which is largely characterized by sonic dissonance and the unhinged emotional turbulence that such atonality brings, Richards’ audio for Radio at Night operates out of a definitive engagement with musical harmony. The soundtrack is entirely composed in the key of C Minor, blending fragments of found sound with passages sung by a female vocal ensemble. (The artist commissioned the ensemble to perform excerpts from ‘The enemies of She Who call her various names’ a 1972 poem by American feminist, lesbian activist, and poet Judy Grahn. Excerpts of Grahn’s poems and voice have previously appeared in Richards’ Misty Suite, 2009 and Not Blacking Out, Just Turning The Lights Off (2001–2012). This C-minor key sustains a register of sonic coherence from beginning to end—from the opening scene, where a low thrumming sound of two interchangeable notes accompanies a constrained shot of trees inside a viewfinder, through to the complex and hypnotic arrangements of choppy samples that stutter together in the central section of the video. Radio at Night’s unified quality is not entirely hermetic, however. Like the open holes, cavities, and apertures it depicts on screen, the video itself is a porous structure: disparate materials become interchangeable within a rhythmic whole, sounds and images flow in and out as if elements of a bridge or chorus.

James Richards, 'Radio at Night', 2015, video

James Richards, Radio at Night, 2015, video

A feeling of seamlessness permeates Radio at Night. Disparate material is regulated and conditioned into coherence. Simple interventions—namely, Richards’ use of the imposition of the loop and the frame—skew a source’s original sense of scale or duration, and integrates a controlled mechanical process into physical mannerisms. (This is not to say that human gesture is purely rendered as a mechanized artifact, but rather the situation is reciprocal: the loop gives a human image to the mechanism.) “The video frame acts less like a window and more like a surface in which activities happen and are divided,” says Richards. “These are images pumped out as if from a small bandwidth, personal but distant.”

In his 1936 essay “The Work of Art in the Age of Mechanical Reproduction,” Walter Benjamin described cinema as a function to “train human beings in the apperceptions and reactions needed to deal with a vast apparatus whose role in their lives is expanding almost daily.” Radio at Night emerges from and also depicts a contemporary moment in which the human figure is seamlessly blended with its technological environment. Here, apperception is not simply an instructive coping mechanism, but an aesthetically elevated form of visceral engagement that draws out emotional correspondences between unlikely entities: a “thinking” hard-drive that looks back at us, the melancholia of a crowd disappearing into the darkness. It is this space and sound between the physical moment and a perceptual one that Radio at Night attempts to render.

 

 

Notes from the Interior: Moyra Davey’s Notes on Blue

The first in a series of Moving Image Commissions premiered in the Walker Cinema and released online June 1 for a limited run, Moyra Davey’s new 28-minute film, Notes on Blue (2015) is a response to the late British filmmaker Derek Jarman. Here, Bentson Scholar Isla Leaver-Yap discusses the artist’s exploration of mortality, color, and identity.  Moyra Davey’s Notes on […]

Moyra Davey, Notes on Blue, 2015, production still

Moyra Davey, Notes on Blue, 2015, production still

The first in a series of Moving Image Commissions premiered in the Walker Cinema and released online June 1 for a limited run, Moyra Davey’s new 28-minute film, Notes on Blue (2015) is a response to the late British filmmaker Derek Jarman. Here, Bentson Scholar Isla Leaver-Yap discusses the artist’s exploration of mortality, color, and identity. 

Moyra Davey’s Notes on Blue begins with a frank explanation of how it came to be: “I began with a first note to myself,” says Davey as she walks back and forth in front of the camera. “I made a list. But I’ll start in the middle with Blue Ruin, a one-minute movie shot on outdated film stock about a woman at the end of the day, threading her bra out from under her t-shirt, while pouring shots of gin from the freezer.”

Braiding together disparate observations and personal accounts, Notes on Blue is an episodic meditation on blindness, color, and the life and work of British filmmaker Derek Jarman (1942–1994). From the opening scene of her 28-minute video and throughout the work, Davey continually folds time back on itself. In her prefatory monologue the artist establishes a new orientation; she states that the beginning is not actually the beginning at all, but the middle. The middle to which she refers is, meanwhile, an anachronistic fragment: Blue Ruin, a film storyboarded ten years ago, a year before the artist went blind in one eye.

Notes on Blue is the result of Davey’s enquiry and responses to the work and legacy of Jarman the filmmaker, gardener, political activist and, perhaps most significantly for Davey, Jarman the writer. At the invitation of the Walker Art Center last year, Davey began her commission by poring over the late filmmakers notes and journals. Jarman was a prolific writer, whose voluminous autobiographical books and personal sketchbooks occasionally spilled over into autofiction. His style of writing — intimate and uninhibited — is an intriguing complement to Davey’s own confessional and lyrical writing that often takes the form of short essays and personal notes, published in parallel with her exhibitions of photographic work or else employed as spoken-word monologues to her essay films, including Fifty Minutes (2006), Les Goddesses (2011), and, now, Notes on Blue. Davey amassed her personal reflections on Jarman, rewriting them into her own pre-existing texts, spawning new ones, and incorporating these alongside her own Super-8 and digital video footage both recent and old.

Moyra Davey, Notes on Blue, 2015

Moyra Davey, Notes on Blue, 2015, video

In Notes on Blue, Jarman’s experience with blindness as a consequence of AIDS is paralleled with Davey’s own blindness as a consequence of Multiple Sclerosis. Both draw on illness as a site of production, a catalyst for thought as much as a subject. Jarman’s blindness was the subject of his final film Blue (1994), a single continuous shot of Yves Klein’s International Blue (the color Jarman said he could see when he went blind), accompanied by a 79-minute autobiographical monologue. It is this Blue to which Davey’s work refers, occasionally paraphrases, and intersperses with her own typically wry reflections on illness: “My first reaction was relief I didn’t have a brain tumor and, like many patients, I enjoyed being the actor at the center of my own drama,” says Davey on finding the cause of her blindness. “Thus began a different way of life.” (Unsentimental and direct, both Davey’s responses and her invocation of Jarman’s are reminiscent of Virginia Woolf’s own reflections in her book On Being Ill. As the latter wrote: “Incomprehensibility has an enormous power over us in illness, more legitimately perhaps than the upright will allow. In health meaning has encroached upon sound.”)

Together with an associative and personalized array of quotations, diary entries, and anecdotes, the reflective thrust of Notes on Blue also takes detours into the personal lives of American poet Anne Sexton, Argentinian writer Jorge Luis Borges, German filmmaker Rainer Werner Fassbinder, and British musician PJ Harvey. Each of these figures are amalgamated into Davey’s personal constellation of equivalences, and their words are suspended epigraphically within her own narrative — a spoken monologue that is itself mediated through a prerecorded audio prompt that plays over headphones worn by the artist as a form of aide memoire.

The structuring principle of Notes on Blue — the form of the personal note — is embedded both in the work’s title and its opening monologue. As something that always seeks to encapsulate an event or impression, the primary function of the personal note is to preserve and transport intimate observations about the present into the future; and, as the future becomes the present, the personal note becomes an archive. Maintaining some details at the cost of obscuring others, the personal note can be a compulsive form. Responding sympathetically to Roland Barthes’s apparent addiction to note-taking (a habit that regularly interrupted his conversations and walks with friends), Davey wrote in her 2007 essay “Notes on Photography and Accident,”

Reading and thinking about note-taking gives me a form of security, a thrill even. […] I’m drawn to fragmentary forms, to lists, diaries, notebooks and letters. Even just reading the word ‘diary’ elicits a frisson, a touch of promise. It’s the concreteness of these forms, the clarity of their address, that appeals and brings to mind Virginia Woolf’s dictum about writing, that “to know whom to write for is to know how to write.”

As Davey explains by way of Woolf, the inner logic of the personal note collapses reader and writer together. It excuses the need for linear narrative and permits content to jump between times and places. Subject matter is meanwhile arbitrarily bound together by physical proximity on the page as much as in the mind of its author. It is in this vein that Notes on Blue traverses its episodic sketches, purposefully constituting its own interior sense of time.

Davey’s preoccupation with noting and recording the quality of time and its effects has recurred throughout her expansive practice. Her art directly engages with the interplay between personal time and the narratives it produces, whether through her analogue photographs of fridge-freezers, clocks, or dust (all portraits of time accrued or suspended); videos that re-examine her formative family portraits and illustratively places them alongside the diarized lives of Mary Wollstonecraft and her family and lovers; or her short and informal collection of published texts that intersperse quotes from critics, poets and artists with her own reminiscences and responses. Integral to Davey’s inquiry, too, is the artist’s inhabitation of domestic time and space — a site that might offer respite from the industrialized clock of work time, as well as the potential to withdraw from social interactions that would inhibit personal reflection and interiority.

Moyra Davey, Notes on Blue, 2015, video

Moyra Davey, Notes on Blue, 2015, video

In many of Davey’s previous photographs and videos, her New York apartment has served as the private backdrop, where the residue of home living is observed and captured: lint is glimpsed gathering under furniture, incongruous patches of floor tiling are flattened out photographically in two dimensions, groaning bookshelves and stacks of old records provide their own indexical drama. But in Notes on Blue the space of the artists’ home is not simply a feature to be observed, but an architecture that is subjected to a domestic choreography. As Davey recites her monologue, she paces the corridors, moving back and forth between doors that swing open and closed as if she and the architecture are part of the same metronome, her movement demonstrating depth and space for the benefit of the screen. Rooms become a stage for the recitations of her personal notes, and Davey’s wandering is akin to didactic memory game of Roman Rooms. As the artist’s voice attentively heeds her audio prompts, so too her movement through the apartment finds its own rhythm and familiar, measured gravity. The home gradually takes on its own character, becoming an unlikely witness and container to histories that would otherwise remain separate.

Moyra Davey, Notes on Blue, 2015, video

Moyra Davey, Notes on Blue, 2015, video

Windows, too, are a key feature in Notes on Blue. They initially appear as occlusions to vision; their brightness casts the room in shadow, and the artist stands before the camera in murky silhouette. The intensity of the interior is amplified, and the brilliance of the outside is rendered a blank — an extremity of vision, or perhaps a lack. Such qualities recall the attitudes of Austrian architect Adolf Loos, who once remarked that a cultivated man does not look out of the window, “his window is ground glass; it is there only to let the light in, not to let the gaze pass through.” And yet, as Notes on Blue begins to unfold to include dream-like sequences that appear like tarot cards evenly distributed through the work — an abandoned bird’s nest, a dazzling moon, a dog vanished through jump-cut, a young woman wearing angel wings in a New Jersey train station, and an auspicious shot of construction laborers suspended between Davey’s apartment block and her neighbor’s — the apartment windows emerge as dilating apertures opening out onto the world, climaxing with a wide open shot of the city at dawn.

Moyra Davey, Notes on Blue, 2015, video

Moyra Davey, Notes on Blue, 2015, video

Notes on Blue is a work that is always attempting to gather an atomizing identity. Just as she compares Jarman to “Pasolini, by way of Fellini,” so too Davey’s own subjectivity is similarly distributed among her sources and influences. Her irrepressible stream of personal notes and lyrical associations occasionally tip the narrative over into the fantastic, where the spoken monologue and the images to which it is tied abrade each other in perpetual and productive tension. Towards the end of the film, Davey acknowledges that the shift between her use of the analogue technologies she once knew but is quickly forgetting and the digital ones she is struggling to learn has produced a “strange suspension” in her life. Notes on Blue shrewdly articulates this particular feeling of suspension by straddling different technologies, eras, mediums and ideas. Its common thread, then, is not only the figure of the artist — the conduit and protagonist who reorders events and materials into a personal pattern of correspondences — but the sustained register of intimacy, whose language composes a delicate treatise on the daily experience of aesthetics and mortality.

 

Timeline: A History of Christopher Nolan in Nine Films, Eight Years, and Four Interviews

It’s only appropriate that Christopher Nolan’s May 5 visit to the Walker Art Center came on the heels of the dizzying release of the latest teaser trailer for Star Wars: Episode VII – The Force Awakens. Fresh off his own trek to the outer reaches of space with the spectacular sci-fi adventure drama Interstellar, Nolan […]

Christopher Nolan’s Interstellar, 2014. Photo courtesy Photofest ©Paramount Pictures

It’s only appropriate that Christopher Nolan’s May 5 visit to the Walker Art Center came on the heels of the dizzying release of the latest teaser trailer for Star Wars: Episode VII – The Force Awakens. Fresh off his own trek to the outer reaches of space with the spectacular sci-fi adventure drama Interstellar, Nolan 38 years ago was, like countless moviegoers worldwide, forever impacted by the George Lucas’ 1977 space opera. But unlike most starry-eyed fans, Nolan was inspired to expand the Star Wars universe in his own cinematic way, and in doing so, he was inadvertently laying the foundation for a legendary, Lucas-like career of his own as a writer, producer and director.

“I started making Super 8 films when I was 7 years old,” Nolan told me in 2006, in the first of four conversations we would have about his films over the next eight years. “My first few films were little action-figure extravaganzas, and soon, as Star Wars came out and changed everything, my movies were Star Wars ripoffs for years, with spaceships and action figures. They were little, mini-epics. It was great fun.”

The filmmaker’s dialogue with Variety film critic Scott Foundas earlier this week comes only months after the release of Interstellar, perhaps undoubtedly his most ambitious project to date. Released in November 2014, Interstellar is a harrowing yet uplifting tale of a dying planet Earth that, among many other things, examines wormholes, black holes, and the notion of love transcending the boundaries of space and time.

Christopher Nolan's Insomnia, 2002. Photo courtesy Photofest ©Warner Bros.

Christopher Nolan’s Insomnia, 2002. Photo courtesy Photofest ©Warner Bros.

Timing, of course, is everything for anyone’s career in Hollywood, and in retrospect, it’s hard to imagine what might have been had the business had been running on Nolan’s clock during a pivotal moment in his career. After his debut feature with the indie mystery thriller Following in 1998 and the critically acclaimed mind-bender Memento in 2000, Nolan was marching forward at a rapid beat by attracting Al Pacino, Robin Williams, and Hilary Swank to his 2002 atmospheric crime thriller Insomnia.

The film established his relationship with Warner Bros. and effectively laid the groundwork for his reimagination of studio’s famed DC superhero, Batman, with Batman Begins. But, as the filmmaker revealed, he was all but ready to launch into his magician opus, The Prestige, before realizing he didn’t have the proper amount of time to effectively recalibrate the expansive, time-honored tale of the Caped Crusader.

“I was going to make the film before Batman Begins, and right at the last minute—literally the last day before I was going to get on a plane and start looking for locations for The Prestige—I realized that we just didn’t have the time to do the film justice and turn Batman Begins around for a summer 2005 release,” Nolan said. “I promised the studio that I would not allow [The Prestige to be overshadowed], so we put the film on ice and was able to come back to it a couple of years later.”

In doing so, Nolan—bolstered by the success of the superhero film—was able to return to the project about magic and obsession with such heavy hitters as Hugh Jackman and Scarlett Johansson and a few familiar faces.

“I was able to reapproach the script [for The Prestige] with fresh eyes, which was great, and also from a casting point of view, I was able to imagine, suddenly, Christian Bale as Alfred Borden and Michael Caine as Cutter,” said Nolan, who has produced all his films with his wife, Emma Thomas. “To me, those parts are unthinkable with anyone else at this point.”

Christopher Nolan’s The Prestige, 2006 Photo: Francois Duhamel, courtesy Newmarket/Photofest ©Newmarket Films

Christopher Nolan’s The Prestige, 2006. Photo: Francois Duhamel, courtesy Newmarket/Photofest ©Newmarket Films

Ironically, Bale wasn’t an automatic for the role as Borden, a technically gifted magician who found himself at odds with Jackman’s Robert Angier, a flamboyant magician with better stage presence than Borden, but who is inferior in skill.

“Since we worked together so well on Batman, the only hurdle was, ‘Is Chris going to see me anything but Bruce Wayne?’ That was tricky,” Bale told me in 2006. “Fortunately, he was very easily convinced. I made a couple of calls to him and he said, ‘All right, let’s do it.'”

Nolan appeared less concerned over the Batman factor with Bale, because he knew going into The Prestige what the actor was capable of sans a cape and cowl.

“It was really great fun to get Christian in an arena where the acting was everything,” Nolan recalled. “We used lighting setups where we didn’t have marks so the actors could wander around freely and be a bit more spontaneous and looser with things. It was tremendous to watch him take that opportunity and just run with it. He’s an extraordinary performer. The layers he’s put into the performance are just thrilling.”

“Dark” days

As Nolan tipped his hand in the direction of The Joker at the end of Batman Begins as the Caped Crusader’s main nemesis for the film’s sequel, The Dark Knight, he knew that he had to find an actor to play the Clown Prince of Crime that brought as much complexity and ferocity to the role as Bale brought to Bruce Wayne/Batman. His choice was an unlikely one with Heath Ledger, and it was met with intense push-back from the Batman fan base when the first photo of The Joker—a close-up revealing only the scarred face of the character—appeared online in a viral campaign.

And while Nolan started his Batman experience with an utmost respect for the fans, he also knew he had to stand firm by his casting choices no matter how ugly the criticism got.

“The way I’ve chosen to respect the fans and the investment in this character, which I feel they quite rightly own to a degree, is to sincerely make the best possible film,” Nolan said, just as The Dark Knight went into production. “That’s what we did with the first one, and that’s what we will continue to do, and hopefully that will see us through. Attempting to pander to anybody’s expectations and going against your instinct of what to do … that I know won’t work. But hopefully it will work to stay true to what we think will be the greatest possible movie.”

Perhaps Nolan’s words in 2006 were part of sort of some self-fulfilling prophecy, because by the time The Dark Knight arrived in theaters in July 2008, the feverish anticipation of film was unbearable. Unfortunately for Nolan and his collaborators, the buzz was largely due to the curiosity over Ledger’s performance, because while the actor completed his scenes on the film, he also tragically died nearly eight months before at age 28.

Speaking in 2008 before the debut of the The Dark Knight, the director told me with a heavy heart that it was hard to celebrate the performance of The Joker—which eventually earned Ledger a posthumous Best Supporting Actor Oscar—without the actor being there.

Christopher Nolan’s The Dark Knight, 2008 Photo courtesy Photofest ©Warner Bros.

Christopher Nolan’s The Dark Knight, 2008. Photo courtesy Photofest ©Warner Bros.

“It’s extraordinarily bittersweet to have Heath not around and see the impression that he’s making on people,” Nolan said. “At the same time, I have to admit to feeling great relief that people seem to be receiving the performance very much in the way the Heath would have liked and would have intended.”

The positive reception by critics and preview audiences of Ledger’s performance came as a incredible relief: “It means that I think I did my job OK in terms of putting together his performance and letting it speak the way he intended—which is big responsibility for any film director under any circumstances, let alone when the actor’s died,” Nolan said.

In crafting the film after Ledger’s death, Nolan said it was important to stay true to the way he originally intended to assemble it, instead of letting his personal emotions about his star’s death change the way he completed the project.

“I think and honestly believe that the performance in the film is exactly the way it would have been if Heath had not passed,” Nolan observed. “The truth is, the character he created was so incredibly different to who he was that it made it easier to be more objective about it. This monstrous creation that he’d given us for the film was so opposite to who he was and what it was like to work with him.”

Rising above expectations

While The Dark Knight created a burning anticipation for his planned third film in The Dark Night trilogy, the billion-dollar success of the film worldwide also gave Nolan an incredible amount of clout to pursue other projects outside the superhero realm. With a penchant for creating cerebral narratives for all of his films—superhero or otherwise—Nolan embarked on a trip to the subconscious with the mind-bending espionage masterpiece Inception.

Christopher Nolan’s Inception, 2010. Photo courtesy Photofest ©Warner Bros.

Christopher Nolan’s Inception, 2010. Photo courtesy Photofest ©Warner Bros.

Starring Leonardo DiCaprio as a corporate thief who plants ideas in unknowing victims’ minds through a technology that allows him to enter people’s subconscious thoughts, Inception featured Nolan’s biggest ensemble cast yet—including Joseph Gordon-Levitt, Ellen Page, Ken Watanabe, Cillian Murphy, Marion Cottilard and his frequent collaborator, Michael Caine.

Inception also starred Tom Hardy, an actor who would prove to be pivotal to Nolan’s next Dark Knight installment. Hardy, who played Eames, a forger who can project the image of anyone within the subconscious mind, effectively helped Nolan fulfill his desire to do a 007 film.
“Definitely, Eames in Inception was Christopher Nolan’s ode to Roger Moore’s James Bond,” Hardy told me in a 2012 interview.
While Hardy was a refreshing surprise as a relative newcomer to American audiences in Inception, the actor’s presence grew exponentially (and along with it, pressure) as the main villain, Bane, in Nolan’s The Dark Knight Rises. After all, he was faced with the daunting task of living up to Ledger and his legendary performance in The Dark Knight.

In a 2012 interview for The Dark Knight Rises, Nolan told me that in the creation of Bane, he had to find a villain in the Batman lore that would provide something different than the psychological terror The Joker imposed in The Dark Knight four years before.

Christopher Nolan’s The Dark Knight Rises, 2012. Photo courtesy Photofest ©Warner Bros.

Christopher Nolan’s The Dark Knight Rises, 2012. Photo courtesy Photofest ©Warner Bros.

“What we knew after the end of the second film was that we had an ending for the third. We knew where Bruce Wayne’s story was going, but then we had to construct the tale that would get us there. We needed to find an antagonist for Batman who would primarily be a physical adversary,” Nolan recalled. “We didn’t want to tread on anything Heath had done with The Joker. We wanted to do something that we hadn’t done before, which was to put Batman opposite an adversary who could trade blows with him. We wanted to create a very palpable tension in the audience of not knowing who’s going to win that fight. Bane gave us a really great opportunity to do that.”

While he was the main villain in the film, Hardy wasn’t the only actor facing huge expectations to deliver in The Dark Knight Rises. Anne Hathaway, despite being fresh off a critically-lambasted gig as co-host of the Academy Awards, still caught Nolan’s attention as a frontrunner to play the ambiguous cat burglar Selina Kyle and Catwoman (although she is never referred to that moniker in the film) because of her stage presence.

“She can project a very minutely observed psychological characterization. She can build a character from the ground up in a very realistic way the best film acting requires,” Nolan said. “Yet, she can also go on a stage and entertain 1,000 people, and fill a room with her energy and her vibrancy.”

The combination of those sensibilities, Nolan said, is exactly what Hathaway needed for the dual role of Selina Kyle and her costumed alter ego.

“She’s playing a real character in a grounded universe that we’re trying to create, yet she’s taking on an iconic status, so you need those two things to play both sides,” Nolan said. “It’s very rare that you can find actors who can do both things.”

Days of future, past

The first Nolan film that takes viewers beyond the stars, Interstellar is a 2 hour, 49 minute film about a dying planet Earth and search beyond the realm of our galaxy for a planet for the human race to survive.

An ode to Stanley Kubrick and indelible impression the legendary director’s 2001: A Space Odyssey had on Nolan’s life and career, Interstellar was presented to Nolan through his frequent screenplay collaborator, his brother, Jonathan. Nolan’s younger sibling was originally tasked to write a screenplay for producer Lynda Obst and world-renown astrophysicist Kip Thorne, for a film that was originally to be directed by Steven Spielberg.

Once Christopher Nolan was brought on board to direct and build on the foundation of his brother’s screenplay, a familiar feeling set in: the complex emotion of fear. But fear, a popular theme in Nolan’s films—especially in The Dark Knight trilogy—is something he thrives on as a filmmaker; and for Interstellar he was driven by the idea of presenting images never seen on screen before.

Christopher Nolan on the set of Interstellar, 2014. Photo courtesy Photofest ©Paramount Pictures

Christopher Nolan on the set of Interstellar, 2014. Photo courtesy Photofest ©Paramount Pictures

“Every film you want to have things in there that really frighten you, and there were plenty of those experiences I wanted to find out for myself in Interstellar in terms of what things would look like and feel like [in the depths of outer space],” Nolan told me in 2014. “I had a great team, from visual effects supervisor Paul Franklin and (special effects coordinator) Scott Fisher, to the great theoretical physicist Kip Thorne. Kip was able to work with the visual effects guys and give them the actual equations for how a wormhole would look, how a black hole would bend light around it. He explained it and they were able to render it more accurately than it’s ever been done before.”

While Nolan’s continues to evolve in his career, presenting viewers with images they’ve never seen before, it’s refreshing that his approach to filmmaking remains timeless. Whether it be his insistence on casting classic actors or shooting on film stock (and presenting it on film whenever possible, an increasingly difficult thing to do in the age of digital projection), Nolan said it’s the history of cinema that’s inspiring his visions of today, and tomorrow.

So rest assured, as we bear witness to the work of Christopher Nolan as he moves through time, the integrity of moviemakers past and their timeless creations will remain with him, and most importantly, be forever presented through him.

“I love movies and love the history of movies. With it—just as you have the history of the Batman comics to draw on with all their great writers and artists—you have this great history of experimentation and innovation of the past masters of moviemaking,” Nolan told me during our interview for The Dark Knight Rises in 2012. “You’d be crazy not to study that and avail yourself to that, and look beyond the trends of today to see the moments of what’s been done in the past. They may surprise you and surprise the audiences of today when they’re represented again.

The Walker Cinema screens nine of Christopher Nolan’s films as part of retrospective, Christopher Nolan: Moving Through Time, May 5–24, 2015.

Mediatheque V1.0: A New Cinema

mediatheque_viewmaster-cover

mediatheque_viewmaster-cover

Championing new forms of cinema, celebrating the masters of the past, and engaging with audiences have always been fundamental values of the Walker’s Moving Image department. This tradition continues with the launch of the Mediatheque, a new onsite screening environment that invites visitors to screen their own selection of titles from the Ruben/Bentson Moving Image Collection. This project is the culmination of several years in the making—with Caylin serving as the project manager of the Mediatheque and archivist for the Ruben/Bentson Collection, and Anthony as the technologist for New Media Initiatives. The Mediatheque merges both the on-demand, modern culture of selecting movies with the classic, immersive cinema experience.

The Mediatheque is situated within a long history of programming unique, culturally, and historically significant films at the Walker. As early as the 1950s, films were programmed on the Walker’s campus as well as off site at important cultural organizations. With the establishment of the Film Department in 1973, the Walker began acquiring film prints by some of the most influential filmmakers of all time, such as D.W. Griffith, George Melies, Charlie Chaplin, and Maya Deren.

The collection is currently comprised of more than 1,000 titles with strengths in the American and European avant-garde, early American cinema, Soviet cinema, and the films of William Klein. Created to further the understanding and appreciation of film as an artistic medium, the collection provides audiences, especially residents of the Twin Cities, with an opportunity to watch films that they might not otherwise see.

In order for initiatives that provide collection access, like the Mediatheque, to become a reality, the collection’s preservation needs first needed to be assessed. Beginning in 2012, the department undertook extensive work to stabilize its collection of 8mm, 16mm, and 35mm celluloid prints, update collection records, and review for copyright concerns. As the department obtained permission from filmmakers, prints were cleaned and digitized according to best practices using 2K technology. Besides preserving the films in the collection, digitization efforts also created more possibilities for exhibiting films throughout the Walker campus.

William Klein's Who Are You, Polly Maggoo? (Qui êtes-vous, Polly Maggoo?) (1966)

William Klein’s Who Are You, Polly Maggoo? (1966)

Hollis Frampton's Lemon (1969)

Hollis Frampton’s Lemon (1969)

Buster Keaton's Cops (1922)

Buster Keaton’s Cops (1922)

However, what differentiates the Mediatheque from other spaces on the Walker campus is that it allows you to curate what you want to watch, as well as preserves the cinematic experience we’ve all come to know and love—viewing films on the big screen.

The Mediatheque features a diverse range of collection titles and aims to appeal to anyone with an appreciation of cinema, from aficionados to newcomers. Using a touchscreen remote, you can browse thematic playlists or browse individual films. You can narrow your findings using the filter functionality. Filters include director, decade, nationality, and genre.

Playlists provide a broad thematic window into the collection. You can choose to either add all of the films to the queue or just select titles.

Once a title is selected, you can then read a brief description of the film as well as view stills or a short clip before choosing to queue the film. Once a film is queued, it is projected onto the Lecture Room’s cinema screen.

The queue controls the order in which films are played. More than one visitor can select films to watch, and the films are screened in the order in which they were added. If you add a film to the queue and decide to leave partially through, another visitor is welcome to remove that film from the queue and play their selection.

In the coming days, we will be publishing a more in-depth post that covers the digitization and development of the Mediatheque, the Walker’s first native application. It has been an amazing experience to architect, design, and execute a unique screening environment that provides our broad audience with unprecedented access to this incredible collection. We encourage you to join the audience even if others are already playing a film. Who knows? You might experience something new.

The Art of Conversation: Public Dialogues with Artists

In high-contrast black and white, the opening scene of this film fades up on a large and airy room. A small man stands in the middle distance, dramatically spot-lit and faces a large sculpture that dwarfs him. A second man enters from a doorway at the end of the gallery, back-lit in silhouette, and whose […]

Marcel Duchamp in Conversations with Elderly Wise Men, NBC, 1956

Marcel Duchamp in Conversations with Elderly Wise Men, NBC, 1956

In high-contrast black and white, the opening scene of this film fades up on a large and airy room. A small man stands in the middle distance, dramatically spot-lit and faces a large sculpture that dwarfs him. A second man enters from a doorway at the end of the gallery, back-lit in silhouette, and whose confident voiceover booms out on the soundtrack as the two men turn to face each other on camera.

Voiceover: In the Philadelphia Museum of Art is a collection of paintings and objects by a man whose unique view of life has greatly influenced modern art.

[Cuts to diegetic sound]

Man: So here you are, Marcel, looking at your big glass.

Marcel: Yes. The more I look at it, the more I like it.

This highly staged opening scene is from the January 15, 1956 episode of NBC’s series Conversations with Elderly Wise Men, where the director of the Guggenheim, James Johnson Sweeney, interviews artist Marcel Duchamp.

Beginning with Duchamp’s The Large Glass (1915–23), the pair walks around the Philadelphia Museum of Art’s galleries, stopping in front of recent acquisition of the artist’s sculptures and paintings. They talk amiably about the parallel chronologies of Duchamp’s life and work, as well as his influences—Cubism, Impressionism, and his love of playing chess.

The dramatic Hitchcock-esque lighting and the pair’s stilted conversation (not to mention the program title I initially read as “Conversations with Elderly White Men” and which wouldn’t be a mischaracterization of the series as a whole) dates this interview as something of a conversational fossil in comparison with the online informality to which we have become accustomed in HuffPost Live interviews and Reddit AMAs. But even so, the Duchamp/Sweeney interview reveals as much about the function of the public presentation and broadcast of the “artist in conversation,” as it does Duchamp’s own recollections of his work.

What artists say in public—about their life, influences and their own readings of their work—has always been of great significance in museum and scholarly interpretation, even when what is said is completely contrary. (During a different interview with art critic Calvin Tompkins, for example, Duchamp suddenly reflected on the format of what they were doing together: “I don’t believe in talking. Here we have been talking for hours! But don’t believe what I say.”)

And yet the coaxing out of thoughts, and the broadcast of such reflection to a public, remains a central part of how museums bridge the interaction between artists and the audiences. The question of what it might mean to be a spokesperson for one’s own art is still an urgent one. And although this Duchamp/Sweeney interview is a rarity within the Walker’s Ruben/Bentson Moving Image Collection (a collection that is almost exclusively dedicated to the collection and preservation of artists’ moving image art works, not descriptions of them as this interview appears to be), the artist-in-conversation format nonetheless remains a central part of the Walker’s public programs, and is a cornerstone of the Walker Dialogues program that broadcasts its conversations within the Walker Channel.

Some artists are experts at the public talk format. Filmmaker Stan Brakhage, for example, was a master of monologging and especially of the elongated personal andecdote, where his articulate projection of his artistic vision through his own descriptions seemed as if it were a parallel broadcast and commentary on and with his work. But the pressure to “explain” or for the artist to function as an articulate ambassador to one’s art work is no easy task. For some, it is incompatible with making the work; for others, it simply becomes the work. German artist Martin Kippenberger’s various video interviews, for example, often appear to be standalone performance in themselves, which deny the format’s desire to talk about work by replacing it with another art work or a series of “public selves.”

In contrast to Brakhage and Kippenberger’s incorporation of the in-conversation as an extension of artistic narrative, Duchamp was traditionally professional; on the one hand there was the work, and on the other there was him talking about the work. In short, they were separate entities with distinct functions. That Duchamp gave so many public interviews was testament to his own capacity to speak about his work with great ease and accessibility to general audiences. His love of the formal qualities of the work and the pleasure of making something could be easily understood.

Although first broadcast by NBC in 1956, this Duchamp interview was recorded in 1955. The timing is significant: the recording took place in the same year in which the artist was officially recognized as a US citizen. Duchamp’s increasingly widespread recognition as a highly influential artist merged that year with the public identification of Duchamp as an American. And although it’s hard to tell from the polished sheen of this formal interview, there was also a particular intimacy between interviewer and interviewee; Sweeney (along with then-MoMA advisory director Alfred H Barr and art collector James Thrall Soby) attended as a witness to Duchamp’s naturalization ceremony. This film thus stands as a document of transition of an individual within a widening audience: it locates a moment of shifting national identity of an artist, and the acquisition of his work into a major American public collection. These things can be read implicitly as the “in conversation” has shifted from broadcast item to historical artifact.

Public in-conversations that occur with an audience present, as well as those simply recorded for an at-home audience, are deep resource documents for public and professional scholars and, like Duchamp on NBC, such materials can be read implicitly as well as explicitly, critically as well as illustrative. These conversations are, after all, crucial moments of public interface, which provide oral histories to the artworks we encounter, and sometimes even challenge the hierarchies between supporting interview and artwork. I’m reminded here of pianist Jason Moran’s 2005 sampling of an Adrian Piper interview, where Piper discusses the artists communication with their audience, as she explains, “If artists intentions and ideas were more accessible to the general public, I think it might break down the misunderstandings between the art world and artists and the general public.” It was not without a certain shrewd self-reflexivity that former Walker curator Bartholomew Ryan inserted Moran’s recording as an introductory soundtrack to his in-conversation talk between artists Liam Gillick and Hito Steyerl, the opening of which is captured in the clip below.

In its most basic form, the format of the artist in conversation traditionally looks a bit like that of a talk show. It comprises an interviewer (a professional interlocutor, or expert of some kind) and a subject (the artist). The third element—the public—doesn’t need to be present at the time of the conversation necessarily, but present or not, it is still the primary reason the conversation takes place at all. It is this public that provides the unspoken pressure  for the conversation to “go somewhere”—to be engaging, surprising, argumentative or revealing.

The interviewer and the interviewee must become co-producers of their own social scenario. Both must piece together narratives, stitch together anecdotal evidence, partial memories, and occasionally confessional material that, when combined, allow the audience to slip between the feeling of eavesdropping on a one-on-one conversation while watching two people engage in something akin to a performance. It is this rather vertigiousness movement between intimacy and information, between dialogue and monologue, that gives the in-conversation its allure, not to mention the entertainment produced by accident and spontaneity.

But as the formal manners of Duchamp’s NBC interview have waned, the personalization of time and broadcasting has changed, and audiences have become increasingly sophisticated and responsive listeners. Artists, meanwhile, have increasingly taken control of their own mediation through the non-scarcity resources of online self-publishing. Questions, too, have been raised over the authenticity or productiveness of fatigue-based public conversations, like the Serpentine’s annual Marathon series (where artists, writers, scientists, film-makers, choreographers, theorists and musicians come together for a hectic schedule of non-stop talks and events).

The desire to cut out the middle-man interviewer has had great success in Reddit AMAs, though notably outside of the sphere of visual art discussion. But the logical extension of cutting out the middle-man is to undo the format completely—to begin a conversation not with the interviewer or even the artist, but the artwork. In many ways, that’s the dialogue that the artist seeks to establish with their work in the first place.

 

Filmmakers in Conversation: The Zellner Bros. on Kumiko, the Treasure Hunter

A grainy VHS of Fargo is the only solace for Kumiko, the newest protagonist from writing-directing-acting team the Zellner Bros. In a whimsical and bizarre exploration of humans’ preoccupation with fiction, Kumiko, the Treasure Hunter tells the story of a disillusioned woman who is so obsessed with a movie that she is convinced it contains […]

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A grainy VHS of Fargo is the only solace for Kumiko, the newest protagonist from writing-directing-acting team the Zellner Bros. In a whimsical and bizarre exploration of humans’ preoccupation with fiction, Kumiko, the Treasure Hunter tells the story of a disillusioned woman who is so obsessed with a movie that she is convinced it contains a treasure map. When her life reaches new levels of mundane, she leaves her home in Japan and hops on a plane to America to find the buried money. The Zellner Bros. shot their fifth feature onsite in both Tokyo and Minnesota, employing two different supporting casts and crews. Kumiko premiered at the 2014 Sundance Film Festival.

Joined by Variety Chief Film Critic Scott Foundas, David and Nathan Zellner visited the Walker in September of 2014 for the Walker’s Filmmakers in Conversation series. They discussed the origins of their film, casting choices, and comedic inspiration. You can watch the entire dialogue on the Walker Channel. For more on the blending of reality and fiction in Kumiko, the Treasure Hunter, read a recent New York Times article addressing the new possibilities of the imagination in the era of the moving image.

Kumiko, the Treasure Hunter will be released in theaters across the country this month. The film opens at Landmark Theatres in the Twin Cities on March 27.

Walker Dialogues and Film Retrospectives: Crowd-sourced Cinema Line-up

This summer the Walker Film/Video department will celebrate 25 years of Dialogues and Retrospectives by hosting weekly screenings in the cinema. The crowd-sourced series will give audiences the opportunity to pick from some of the most influential and provocative films that played Walker Art Center over the past 25 years. From directors like the Coen […]

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This summer the Walker Film/Video department will celebrate 25 years of Dialogues and Retrospectives by hosting weekly screenings in the cinema. The crowd-sourced series will give audiences the opportunity to pick from some of the most influential and provocative films that played Walker Art Center over the past 25 years. From directors like the Coen Brothers, Ang Lee, and Agnès Varda, there is sure to be something for everyone. You may vote for as many films as you would like through April 15th and results will be updated automatically.

Check back here in April to see if your favorites made the final cut. Walker Dialogues and Film Retrospectives were launched with support from The John D. and Catherine T. MacArthur Foundation and sustained over the past 25 years with generous support from the Regis Foundation and Anita and Myron Kunin.

Filmmakers in Conversation: Ruben Östlund and Force Majeure

Swedish director Ruben Östlund visited Walker Art Center in January of 2015 for the Filmmakers in Conversation series to present his retrospective entitled In Case of No Emergency. One of Scandinavia’s most innovative directors, he tests his characters by placing them in tense social situations that examine human prejudice. His most recent film, Force Majeure, […]

Director Ruben Östlund during his January 2015 visit to Walker Art Center.

Director Ruben Östlund during his January 2015 visit to Walker Art Center

Swedish director Ruben Östlund visited Walker Art Center in January of 2015 for the Filmmakers in Conversation series to present his retrospective entitled In Case of No Emergency. One of Scandinavia’s most innovative directors, he tests his characters by placing them in tense social situations that examine human prejudice. His most recent film, Force Majeure, follows a Swedish family on vacation in the French Alps. When a controlled avalanche threatens to overtake them, the family dynamic is permanently shaken. Like his previous features Involuntary and Play (also included in the retrospective), Force Majeure encourages audiences to reexamine their own behaviors and values. In May of 2014, Östlund took his third trip to the Cannes Film Festival where Force Majeure won the Jury Prize. His next film, tentatively called The Square, examines societal trust in public spaces. In conjunction with the film, he is planning a gallery exhibition that puts visitors to the same test that his characters face.

After the Walker screening of Force Majeure, Östlund joined Dennis Lim, director of programming at the Film Society of Lincoln Center for a post-screening conversation that addressed the failure of the nuclear family, using close ups for the first time, and finding inspiration on YouTube. This conversation is now available on the Walker Channel.

 

A Vision Workshop: The Exchanges of Stan Brakhage and Sally Dixon, Part 2

Friends, colleagues, and champions of each other’s respective careers, artist Stan Brakhage and curator Sally Dixon had a life-long relationship. Their history of swapping letters and sharing neighborhoods, as well as the gifting of works and other ephemera, clearly demonstrated that there was many routes through which Crystal Clips — the Walker’s as-yet unidentified 16mm film believed to […]

Stan Brakhage editing in Rollinsville, Colorado 1978.  Photograph by Sally Dixon.

Stan Brakhage editing in Rollinsville, Colorado, 1978. Photo: Sally Dixon

Friends, colleagues, and champions of each other’s respective careers, artist Stan Brakhage and curator Sally Dixon had a life-long relationship. Their history of swapping letters and sharing neighborhoods, as well as the gifting of works and other ephemera, clearly demonstrated that there was many routes through which Crystal Clips — the Walker’s as-yet unidentified 16mm film believed to be a Brakhage “work in progress” — could have passed between Brakhage and Dixon’s possessions.

As I mentioned before, Crystal Clips had been found among Dixon’s gift to the Walker of Brakhage 16mm and 8mm film cans. The original film can bore a typed-up sticky label with the title, a largely anonymous piece of information without any handwritten marks, although the wear and discoloration on the tape matched that of the neighboring Brakhage containers. The 16mm film, meanwhile, had been transferred to an archive-safe can and stored in the Walker’s archive freezer so as to minimize the inevitable degradation to which all objects (celluloid or otherwise) are subject.

After Crystal Clips was pulled from the archive freezer and spent three days thawing out, I went down to the Film/Video archive, a temperature-controlled room in the Walker’s basement, to meet Caylin Smith, the Bentson archivist. While Caylin unpacked the film, she pointed out a handwritten note she’d found accompanying the film. The paper was clearly the same type Sally Dixon often used in her own notes, and the writing — a list of films, which presumably was meant to correspond to the contents of the reel — likewise matched Dixon’s hand. Also included was a yellow Post-It written in the hand of Walker Archivist Jill Vuchetich, which most likely recorded a comment made by Sally Dixon at the time of the gift’s acquisition.

Unidentified note accompanying Crystal Clips. Photo: Isla Leaver-Yap

Caylin booked a screening slot with Joe Beres, the Walker’s Film/Video projectionist, so we could see the film in the cinema. We’d have to wait for a quiet gap between the Walker’s regular print checks (when projectionists inspect the quality of the film or video material as it comes in from a distributor and prepare it for the public screening program) and the regular public screening schedule.

Caylin suggested we look at the Crystal Clips reel by hand. She carefully unspooled the film on a light-box. It clocked in at approximately 50 feet long, so it was clearly a short film, likely no longer than three minutes. Entirely black and white, and without a sound-strip to signify accompanying audio of any kind, Crystal Clips resembled the kind of compilation reel that keen cinema enthusiasts could order from public distributors such as Blackhawk Films. The contents of the films varied slightly from the accompanying blue note, and I recorded it thus from its interspersed title cards:

Dr E.J. Marey, Studied in Animal Motion, c. 1887, France

Charles Urban, The Electrolysis of Metals, 1910, Great Britain

Georges Melies, The Dreyfus Case (Clearing the court-toom), c. 1900, France

Victor Turin, Turksib, 1929, USSR

Clearly a personalized edit of a longer reel, I wondered whether it had in fact been a teaching aid of some kind, rather than artistic material put aside for a “work in progress.” This educational use seemed possible, given that Brakhage’s first engagement with Dixon was via her invitation to lecture in Pittsburgh.

Looking at Crystal Clips. Photo: Isla Leaver-Yap

Looking at Crystal Clips. Photo: Isla Leaver-Yap

I took a few reference photographs on my cell phone before the film was spooled up to pass on to the cinema and returned to the Walker’s main archive room to look through Dixon’s correspondence folders and consult publications of Brakhage’s writings and lectures held in the Walker’s library next door.

As is generally known, not to mention heavily evidenced through their correspondence, Brakhage and Dixon both regularly taught the history of cinema. Dixon taught during her role as Carnegie’s film curator, while Brakhage lectured at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago and later as the distinguished professor of film studies at CU Boulder, retiring from his post only a few months before his death in 2003. (Brakhage also taught a master class when he was at Film in the Cities, while Dixon was director.)

Whether from Dixon’s curatorial position or Brakhage’s artistic one, they both contextualized their own work in the field of artists’ film within a highly individual canon: they would discuss their work and the work of Kenneth Anger, James Broughton, and Jonas Mekas, as part of a historical trajectory of artists’ film that began with the Lumière Brothers, Hans Richter, and Georges Méliès. But the significance Brakhage and Dixon both attached to teaching artists’ film came not only of a desire to share their work in context, but also to fill what they saw as a vacuum of understanding around the arts, and how the artists’ film was a key part of that under-served discussion. As Brakhage lamented in a conversation with Mekas much later in 2000,

All the arts, what we traditionally call the arts, have suffered from this breakdown of terminology, this lack of serious critique. Here is a discipline far older than any other we know of human beings, but when it’s taught in public schools, in fact in colleges, it’s taught as a playground for finger painting and for expressing yourself.

Brakhage was a skilled historian and teacher. His courses were wide ranging, and included Painting and Film, Biographical Film, Avant-Garde Cinema, Documentary Film, and Transcendental Film. He lectured extensively on early cinema, with idiosyncratic style and underscored by romantic lyricism and unabashed bias. (His presentation on D.W. Griffith, for example, begins: “They named him David: and he was to grow up to become a giant and slay himself.”) In Dixon’s personal papers, I found a copy of writer and poet Guy Davenport’s introduction to a public Brakhage lecture which beautifully describes the discursive nature of the latter’s lecturing style:

He is going to climb this mountain by wrapping it with his footprints; he will come down again when he is halfway up, climb another mountain by way of digression, and then go back up the first one. He shows us that to be interested in anything we must be interested in everything. This kind of mind is not an American tradition. We are raised to respect conviction rather than analysis, persuasion rather than interpretation. Brakhage uses up the average man’s portion of speculative thought every day.

Analysis and interpretation was arguably key to both Brakhage’s and Dixon’s teaching styles, as they sifted through, ordered, and presented what was then a nascent history of artists’ moving image and established a context for their own practices.

In the library, I read a first edition of The Brakhage Lectures (since reissued as a free pdf by Ubu Editions). Brakhage delivered these lectures at the School of the Art Institute of Chicago in the Fall/Winter semester of 1970–1971. As Ian Robertson’s afterword to the publication records, Brakhage screened 43 films, and it is this list of film works that were a key source in cross-referencing the films listed in the Crystal Clips reel and its accompanying note.

Dixon, meanwhile, included some of the titles of Crystal Clips at the workshops she presented at Pittsburgh Filmmakers, where she was an instructor. In “Personal Film,” a 1976 course that she evocatively described as “a vision workshop,” Dixon walked her students through her own interpretation of artists’ film, where the surrealist shorts of Salvador Dalí and Francis Picabia were followed by screenings of work by her contemporaries: Bruce Connor, Marie Menken, Jonas Mekas and, of course, Brakhage. Dixon always sought to succinctly define the operational and practical characteristics of artists’ intentions: the Lumière Brothers “specialised in actualities, views”; Edison “specialized in theatrical and staged scenes”; while Méliès was concerned with “fantasy, fiction, illusion.”

But all three, Dixon explained to her students, depicted how,

the materialist mind of the nineteenth century had their [sic] eyes open onto the world. Any interesting visual phenomenon, commonplace or exotic, was material for the early short films. They were “gathering in” a world newly opened by improved transporation, intentions and communications. They were seeing both “out” and “in.”

Dixon’s notion of “gathering in” images and knowledge via travel and communication seems to me an apt description of Brakhage’s and Dixon’s own roles as primary disseminators of a new history of artists’ moving image work. And within this scenario, Crystal Clips had significant practical uses to both the artist and the curator. Both Brakhage and Dixon referenced these particular works frequently in their lectures and personal notes.

The assigning of provenance to work is fraught with obstacles both practical and legal. While it’s not necessarily my place or responsibility to verify provenance, I can make some reasonable estimations based on the following: Dixon believed Crystal Clips to be from Brakhage when she gifted it on to the Walker; the discoloration of the can and the reel was similar to the degradation of her other Brakhage works; and Brakhage frequently donated works, books, and other ephemera that he though would be useful to her. The material on Crystal Clips itself, meanwhile, looked to be an extracted copy of a larger and more general reel that presented the history of early film. While examining the back catalogue of the Huntley Archives, another film distributor of early cinema, I found a reel with a similar composition of films. Crucially, the intertitles from Crystal Clips matched the typography of the Huntley reel, the latter of which was in general circulation for educational and reference purposes.

Emily Davis, a former Walker researcher who is now Senior Research Associate for the Time-Based Media Collection at the Carnegie Museum of Art, was in touch with Dixon following the acquisition of Dixon’s gift and archive, of which Crystal Clips was a part. Keen to get her opinion, I sent Davis some of the snapshots I’d taken of the filmstrip, and she generously fed into my research. Speculating that the film was a reversal print, she shrewdly noticed that the filmstrip showed evidence of a “printed-in” splice:

In other words, evidence that the source material has a splice. If that’s true, this would lead me to think that this is a contact print of a “working print.” Stan could have complied the “working print” or he could have simply printed this copy for Sally, another aspect to think about.

Once Joe the projectionist had found us a cinema slot, the Walker Film/Video department — Caylin, Sheryl Mousley, Dean Otto and Kate Rogers — assembled in the cinema to view Crystal Clips. Joe pointed out the traces of optical printing, while Dean noted how “dupey” the print looked — possible evidence of a small-scale reprinting, rather than something more industrial. In the cinema, it was clear that Crystal Clips was not a Stan Brakhage “work in progress” but most likely a custom-printed educational reel, shared between two friends who were also teachers.

Despite the fact that the image is now heavily deteriorated, Crystal Clips races through the invention of cinema as a new visual culture in three compelling minutes. It specifically foregrounds the intersection dramatic narrative and technology — from the breakthroughs of E.J. Marey’s sequenced photographs of animal locomotion, to the construction landscapes of the Turkestan–Siberia Railway captured in Viktor Turin’s Turksib.

As a film, Crystal Clips provides an illustrative role. Its historical contents rely on a guide, on supporting notes delivered by another voice that might unpack and describe the dense excerpts of cinematic innovation.

But as an artifact within the Bentson Collection, Crystal Clips reveals something else. The work and expertise that goes into something as simple as following up a small note like “may have been compiled by Stan Brakhage / work in progress” not only shows the collaborative endeavor of archival research, but also exposes the informal networks through which artists’ moving image circulates both then and now: through the casual passing of hands, out of a common syllabus or a mutual interest, and a desire to share and exhibit an experience beyond one’s own intimate circle of enthusiasts and specialists.

The films included on the Crystal Clips reel were critical tools that Brakhage and Dixon deployed in order to carve out the basis for what we now consider to be the development of artists’ moving image in the western world. Despite the fact that both had initially shown relentless boldness to compare their work and the work of the contemporaries with the great technologists of early cinema, their narrative is nonetheless sustained, amended, and expanded today. And, regardless of provenance or authenticity, the circulation of artists’ moving image has always relied on acts of generosity. As Brakhage himself noted:

I like to share films with people. I think I’ve behaved in the same way that a person would if they saw some precious thing drifting out to sea. You try to rescue it.

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